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  • Context (IE): The Ram Mandir consecration ceremony took place in Ayodhya.
  • It is seen as the result of a decades-long Ram Janmabhoomi Movement.

Evolution of Movement

Medieval Period

  • Marathas demanded Ayodhya, Kashi and Mathura from the Nawab of Awadh in 1751 and 1756.
  • Later, with defeat in the third battle of Panipat (1761), the Marathas become irrelevant.

British Period

  • First judicial submission: Hafizullah in Faridabad court (1822) submitted the presence of a mosque built by Babar on the birthplace of Lord Ram, near Sita Rasoi.
  • During British Rule, a railing separated the places of worship and separated the Mosque and a platform for Hindus.
  • Hanumangarhi Riots (1855): As per Major General GD Outram’s report to Nawab Wajid Ali Shah, “Hindus led by Naga Sadhus and Bairagis secured Janamsthan and Hanuman Garhi, after a clash between Hindus and army led by Shah Ghulam Hussein.
  • 1856 Attack: Hadiga-I-Shuhuda, written by Mirza Jan, records an attack on the Ram Janmabhoomi by Amir Ali Amethawi in 1856, but British troops killed the attacker.
  • 1858 FIR: Mohammad Salim filed an FIR against Nihang Sikhs for installing the Nishan Sahib, performing a havana, and writing ‘Ram’ inside the Babri Masjid.
  • 1885: Mahant of Janmasthan Raghubar Das sought court permission to build a temple at the Ram Chabutra near the Babri Masjid but within the complex, but it was dismissed.

Post Independence Period

  • 1949 Petition: The UP government received a petition for temple construction. The Faizabad administration reported that the land belonged to the government.
  • Hindu Mahasabha Resolution 1949: It called for the ‘liberation’ of Ram Janmabhoomi at Ayodhya, Krishna Janmabhoomi at Mathura and Vishwanath at Kashi.
  • Idol in mosque: On December 22-23, 1949, the idol of Ram Lalla was supposedly placed in the mosque by Abhiram Das (born Abhinandan Mishra and later became ascetic as per Liberhan Commission).
  • Failed attempts to remove the idol: Then PM Jawahar Lal Nehru directed to remove the idol. District magistrates and local MLAs declined to follow.
  • Acquisition by Municipal body occurred later with Ram idol inside.
  • Demand for restoration of Ayodhya: Former UP minister Dau Dayal Khanna demanded the restoration of Ayodhya, Kashi and Mathura to the Hindus from the Indira Gandhi government.
  • Vishwa Hindu Parishad Dharma Sansad 1984 reiterated the demand for liberation, forming “Ram Janmabhoomi Mukti Yagna Samiti”.
  • Opening of locks, December 1986: Faizabad district judge KM Pandey ordered the opening of the locks of the Babri Masjid and permitted Hindus to offer prayers therein.
  • February 1986: All-India Muslim Personal Board meeting in Delhi urged parties to support their demand for the handover of Babri Masjid to Muslims.
  • February 3, 1986: Hashim Ansari (On behalf of the Sunni Waqf Board) moved to Allahabad High Court against the Faizabad court decision seeking possession of Babri mosque.
  • February 1986: The Babri Masjid Action Committee was formed in Lucknow.
  • Later, in December 1986, the All-India Babri Masjid Conference was held under the leadership of Syed Shahabuddin, creating the Babri Masjid Movement Coordination Committee (BMMCC).
  • Shilanyas movement 1989: It was launched by VHP, gathering consecrated bricks (Ram Shila) from all over the country. The government allowed it.
  • November 10, 1989, was decided to be the day for the Shilanyas.
  • Palampur resolution 1989: It called for a negotiated settlement or legislation without court interference on the land.
  • November 9, 1989: The foundation-laying ceremony was held, and Kameshwar Chaupal, a Dalit, laid the first Ram Shila.
  • Rath Yatra 1990 from Somnath to Ayodhya was carried out with violence and police killings at many places.
  • Demolition Day 1992: A mob demolished the Babri Masjid, and the UP government was dismissed.
  • Acquisition of Certain Areas at Ayodhya Act 1993: It gave the government the authority to acquire 67.03 acres of the disputed Ram Janmabhoomi-Babri Masjid land.
  • Presidential reference under Article 143 (1) of the Constitution to determine to determine the old status of the temple was also raised.
  • Justice Liberhan Commission Report 2009: It indicated demolition was not spontaneous. Consequently, a case was registered against the leaders. Later, they were acquitted.
  • Allahabad High Court Judgement 2010: It divided the land in a 2:1 ratio to Shri Ram Lala Virajman and Nirmohi Akhara and Sunni Central Waqf Board, respectively. Later, it was challenged in the Supreme Court.

Ram mandir movement

  • Supreme Court Judgement 2019: A five-judge bench of the Supreme Court unanimously awarded the entire disputed land to the Hindu petitioners for a Ram temple at Ayodhya. It also directed the allotting of alternate land for the mosque.
  • Shri Ram Janmabhoomi Teerth Kshetra Trust was formed following the judgement to carry out the construction.
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