Bojjannakonda and Lingalakonda Buddhist Rock-Cut Caves

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  • Context (TH): Bojjannakonda (Buddina Konda) and Lingalakonda are Buddhist rock-cut caves on adjacent hillocks near Sankaram, Anakapalle of ancient Kalinga in Andhra Pradesh.

Bojjannakonda (Buddina Konda) and Lingalakonda are Buddhist rock-cut caves Buddhist Sites in Andhra Pradesh

  • The sites are believed to date between the 4th and 9th Century A.D., when Buddhism was the majority religion of Sankaram (Sangharam).
  • The majestic figures of Buddha in a meditative pose draw visitors to Bojjannakonda.
  • This site showcases all three phases of Buddhism, namely Hinayana, Mahayana, and Vajrayana.
  • The site is also home to a figure of ‘Kalabhairava’, featuring the head of Lord Ganesha adorned with conch shells and a statue of a Buddhist monk, ‘Harati.
  • Artifacts discovered at the site include a gold coin from the Samudra Gupta era, copper coins of Chalukya king Kubja Vishnu Vardhan, coins from the Andhra Satavahanas period, and pottery.
  • The caves at Bojjannakonda bear a resemblance to those in Takshasila.
  • The word ‘Sangrama’, common in Takshasila but not in Andhra Pradesh, suggests influences from northern Indian Buddhist practices at Bojjannakonda.
  • The Buddhist temple at Barabodur in Java appears to have been built following the architectural style of the structures on Lingala-metta.

Three Phases Of Buddhism

  1. Hinayana: A term used for more conservative schools of early Buddhism. It’s inappropriately used as a synonym for Theravada, the main Buddhist tradition in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia.
  2. Mahayana: A group of Buddhist traditions, texts, and philosophies developed in ancient India.
  3. Vajrayana: A Buddhist tradition of tantric practice developed in the medieval Indian subcontinent.
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