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Questions

Q1. {Healthcare – Drugs} With reference to Methotrexate (MTX), consider the following statements:

  1. Methotrexate is used to treat various medical conditions, primarily cancers, and certain inflammatory conditions.
  2. It is ineffective in treating autoimmune diseases.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q2. {Envi – Eco Sensitive Zones} Which one of the following will NOT be a potential benefit of Eco-Sensitive Zones if it’s around protected areas such as National Parks or Wildlife Sanctuaries ?

  1. Conservation of biodiversity
  2. Improvement of water quality
  3. Reduction of soil erosion
  4. Promotion of sustainable tourism

Q3. {Envi – Conservation} Consider the following statements:

  1. The Global Green Credit (GGC) initiative aims to be a global program promoting environmental action through a standardized credit system.
  2. The Green Credit Programme (GCP) is a national program focused on specific environmental activities within India and operates with pre-defined methodologies and a domestic market.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. 1 Only
  2. 2 Only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Q4. {Envi – Water} Consider the following statements with reference to the Dynamic Ground Water Resource Assessment Report 2023:

  1. As per the report, total annual ground water extraction for the entire country has increased.
  2. Groundwater Resource Assessment is carried out at periodical intervals by Central Groundwater Board (CGWB).
  3. The report acknowledges the positive impact of initiatives like Atal Bhujal Yojana and Jal Shakti Abhiyan in improving groundwater resource management.
How many of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All
  4. None

Q5. {Envi – Conservation} Consider the following statements regarding India’s National Framework for Climate Services (NFCS);

  1. National Framework for Climate Services (NFCS) aims to provide climate information to various sectors like agriculture, energy and disaster management, to help them make informed decisions and mitigate climate risks.
  2. It is led by World Meteorological Organization.
  3. India can’t add other sectors according to its own and must focus on the Priority Sectors identified by the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS).
How many of the above statement(s) is/are correct ?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All
  4. None

Questions with their Answers and Explanation.

Q1. {Healthcare – Drugs} With reference to Methotrexate (MTX), consider the following statements:

  1. Methotrexate is used to treat various medical conditions, primarily cancers, and certain inflammatory conditions.
  2. It is ineffective in treating autoimmune diseases.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation

Statement 1 is correct
  • Methotrexate belongs to a class of drugs known as antimetabolite. It is used to treat various medical conditions, primarily cancers, autoimmune diseases, and certain inflammatory conditions.
  • The MTX overdose in blood plasma is hazardous if it remains in the system for more than 10 hours, resulting in poisoning effects on the lungs, ulcers of the stomach, and heart stroke.
  • Hence, scientists have developed a highly fluorescent material that can be used as a visual sensing platform for detecting the anti-cancer drug Methotrexate (MTX).
Statement 2 is incorrect
  • MTX is a cornerstone therapy for several autoimmune diseases, often showing significant effectiveness in controlling symptoms and managing disease progression.
  • In autoimmune diseases, different mechanisms are involved in choosing methotrexate as a drug of choice.
  • It inhibits enzyme AICAR transformylase, leading to hindrance in adenosine and guanine metabolism, Adenosine accumulation; and due to anti-inflammatory action of adenosine, leads to repression of T-cell activation, down-regulation of B-cells, increasing activated CD-95 T cells sensitivity; and repression of methyltransferase activity, inhibition of the binding of beta-1 interleukin to its cell surface receptor.
Answer: (a) Only One | Difficulty Level: Medium

Q2. {Envi – Eco Sensitive Zones} Which one of the following will NOT be a potential benefit of Eco-Sensitive Zones if it’s around protected areas such as National Parks or Wildlife Sanctuaries ?

  1. Conservation of biodiversity
  2. Improvement of water quality
  3. Reduction of soil erosion
  4. Promotion of sustainable tourism

Explanation

  • Eco-Sensitive Zones are primarily established to protect ecologically sensitive areas from human activities that can harm the environment.
  • While they can contribute to the conservation of biodiversity, improvement of water quality, and reduction of soil erosion, promoting sustainable tourism is not their primary objective.
  • Sustainable tourism can potentially conflict with these objectives, as it may lead to increased human activity in the area, which could disrupt the delicate balance of the ecosystem.
Answer: (d) Promotion of Sustainable Tourism | Difficulty Level: Easy

Q3. {Envi – Conservation} Consider the following statements:

  1. The Global Green Credit (GGC) initiative aims to be a global program promoting environmental action through a standardized credit system.
  2. The Green Credit Programme (GCP) is a national program focused on specific environmental activities within India and operates with pre-defined methodologies and a domestic market.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. 1 Only
  2. 2 Only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2

Explanation

Statement 1 is correct
  • The Global Green Credit Initiative is conceptualized as a mechanism to incentivize voluntary pro-planet actions, as an effective response to the challenge of climate change.
  • GGC envisions the issue of Green Credits for plantations on waste/degraded lands and river catchment areas, to rejuvenate and revive natural eco-systems. It aims to facilitate global cooperation and partnership through exchange of knowledge, experiences and best practices in planning, implementation & monitoring of Environment Positive Actions.
Statement 2 is correct
  • The India’s Green Credits Programme is a market-based mechanism to incentivize voluntary environmental actions across diverse sectors, by various stakeholders like individuals, communities, private sector industries, and companies.
  • The GCP’s governance framework is supported by an interministerial Steering Committee and The Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education (ICFRE) serves as the GCP Administrator, responsible for program implementation, management, monitoring, and operation.
  • It was first announced in the Union Budget 2023-24 and launched by the Environment Ministry in October 2023.
Answer: (c) Both 1 and 2 | Difficulty Level: Easy (Factual)

Q4. {Envi – Water} Consider the following statements with reference to the Dynamic Ground Water Resource Assessment Report 2023:

  1. As per the report, total annual ground water extraction for the entire country has increased.
  2. Groundwater Resource Assessment is carried out at periodical intervals by Central Groundwater Board (CGWB).
  3. The report acknowledges the positive impact of initiatives like Atal Bhujal Yojana and Jal Shakti Abhiyan in improving groundwater resource management.
How many of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All
  4. None

Explanation

Statement 1 is correct
  • As per the report, total annual ground water extraction for the entire country has increased. Total annual ground water recharge is 449.08 billion cubic meters (BCM), marking an increase of 11.48 BCM compared to 2022.
  • Report indicates improvement in groundwater conditions compared with 2022 assessment data with out of a total of 6553 assessment units, 4793 units categorized as ‘Safe’.
  • Driven by a rising population, urbanization and expansion of irrigation activities, groundwater extraction has been on the rise for several decades.
Statement 2 is inorrect
  • Groundwater Resource Assessment is carried out at periodical intervals jointly by State Groundwater Departments (SGWD) and Central Groundwater Board (CGWB).
Statement 3 is correct
  • The report acknowledges the positive impact of initiatives like Atal Bhujal Yojana and Jal Shakti Abhiyan in improving groundwater resource management
  • Atal Bhujal Yojana:- It envisages improving groundwater management in identified water-stressed areas in parts of a few States in the country with emphasis on demand management and community participation.
  • Jal Shakti Abhiyan:- This initiative is characterized by the expeditious execution of five interventions viz. water conservation and the harnessing of rainwater, revitalization of traditional and contemporary aquatic ecosystems, the recycling and replenishment of water, watershed development, and the deliberate augmentation of afforestation efforts.
Answer: (b) Only two | Difficulty Level: Easy

Q5. {Envi – Conservation} Consider the following statements regarding India’s National Framework for Climate Services (NFCS);

  1. National Framework for Climate Services (NFCS) aims to provide climate information to various sectors like agriculture, energy and disaster management, to help them make informed decisions and mitigate climate risks.
  2. It is led by World Meteorological Organization.
  3. India can’t add other sectors according to its own and must focus on the Priority Sectors identified by the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS).
How many of the above statement(s) is/are correct ?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All
  4. None

Explanation

Statement 1 is correct
  • The NFCS framework aims to support efforts to prepare for new climate conditions and adapt to their impacts on water supplies, health risks, extreme events, farm productivity, infrastructure placement, power and energy generation and others.
  • With NFCS, the Met department aims to strengthen the observational network on land and the seas, improve the data inflow and eventually use it to run weather and climate models for deriving climate predictions.
  • Suitable to the user’s needs, the climate data and information products will be tailored and help identify agricultural production, health trends, population distribution in high-risk areas, road and infrastructure mapping for the delivery of goods and other socio-economic variables.
Statement 2 is Incorrect
  • Unlike the GFCS, The NFCS will be headed by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD).
Statement 3 is incorrect
  • At present, the priority sectors where the GFCS focuses upon are agriculture and food security, energy, health, water and disaster risk reduction.
  • Along with the identified sectors of focus, India could add other relevant sectors like transport, tourism and other emerging sectors from time to time.
Answer: (a) Only one | Difficulty Level: Medium
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