PMF IAS Test Series for UPSC Prelims Banner Ad
PMF IAS Test Series for UPSC Prelims Banner Ad

Evolution of Iran-Pakistan Relations

  • Context (IE): Iran and Pakistan have attacked militant bases in each other’s territory.
  • The Iran-Pakistan border, known as the Goldsmith Line, stretches from a tripoint with Afghanistan to the northern Arabian Sea.

Iran Pakistan

Evolution of Iran-Pakistan relations

  • Iran was the first country to recognise Pakistan with diplomatic relations on 14 August 1947.

Cold War Era

  • Western inclination: Both countries joined the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) in 1955.
  • Central Treaty Organization (CENTO)/Middle East Treaty Organization (METO)/ Baghdad Pact: NATO-like military alliance of the Cold War formed by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The US was not part of it.
  • War Cooperations: Iran provided material and weapons support to Pakistan during the 1965 and 1971 wars. Pakistan supported Iran in the Iran- Iraq war (1980s).
  • Common Baloch animosity: Cooperated against Baloch separatists in Balochistan operations.
  • Islamic Republic of Iran: Established after the Iranian Revolution of 1979 overthrew the Pahlavi dynasty; Pakistan was the first to recognise it.

Divergence and Divide

  • Shia – Sunni divide: Ayatollah Khomeini’s ultra-conservative Shiite regime in Iran and Sunni majority Pakistan’s Islamisation under dictator Gen Zia-ul-Haq led to the divergence.
  • US-Pakistan closeness: The Iranian revolution distanced the US and Iran, while the US drew Pakistan closer, generating distrust.
  • Arab Nations: The export of republican ideas of the Iranian revolution irked family-governed Arab nations, while Pakistan continued close relations with Arab nations.
  • Afghanistan: Iran supported the Northern Alliance against the Taliban, especially after attacks on Persian-speaking Shia Hazaras and Iranian diplomats in Mazar-i-Sharif in 1998.

Ups and downs of Reconciliation efforts

  • Benazir Bhutto Government: Visit in 1995, Import of Iranian Gas, Called Pakistan ” Brother in Islam”.
  • Musharraf Period: Military coup (1999) and soured relations.
  • 2008-2013: Signing of Iran-Pakistan pipeline project under the Zardari government indicated improvement, but Pakistan’s Sunni Arab allies feared the Iran-led “Shi’ite triangle”.
  • Post-2013, the Pakistani Sharif government came closer to Arab allies to undo the Iranian tilt.
  • Strategic convergence: China has become most important strategic partner of both Iran and Pakistan.
  • Occasional border issues and minority rights continue to raise concerns between both nations.
Sharing is Caring !!

Newsletter Updates

Subscribe to our newsletter and never miss an important update!

Assured Discounts on our New Products!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


Never miss an important update!