Distribution of key natural resources across India and World: Chromite Ore Distribution In India and World. Copper and Nickel Reserves in India and World. Alloys of Copper.
- Chromite is an oxide of iron and chromium = Combination of chromium, iron and oxygen.
- It is the only economic ore of chromium.
- The chromium extracted from chromite is used in chrome plating and alloying for production of corrosion resistant super alloys, nichrome, and stainless steel.
- Used in many other metallurgical, refractories and chemical industries.
Chromite Ore Distribution In India
- Reserves of chromite in India is estimated at 203 MT.
- 93 per cent of the resources are in ODISHA [Sukinda valley in Cuttack and Jajapur]
- Minor deposits are spread over Manipur, Nagaland, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Maharashtra, TN & AP.
Chromite in Odisha
- Odisha is the sole producer [99 per cent] of chromite ore.
- Over 85 per cent of the ore is of high grade [Keonjhar, Cuttack and Dhenkanal].
Chromite in Other States
- Karnataka is the second largest producer.
- The main production comes from Mysore and Hassan districts.
- Krishna district of Andhra Pradesh, Tamenglong and Ukhrul districts of Manipur are other producers.
Chromite Ore Distribution Across the World
- Copper is a good conductor of electricity and is ductile [able to be drawn out into a thin wire].
- It is an important metal used by automobile and defense industries.
- Alloyed with iron and nickel to make stainless steel.
- Alloyed with nickel to make ‘morel metal’.
- Alloyed with aluminium to make ‘duralumin’.
- When alloyed with zinc it is known as ‘brass’ and with tin as ‘bronze’.
Iron + Nickel + Copper + Chromite +…..== Stainless Steel.
Copper + Nickel == Morel Metal.
Copper + Aluminium == Duralumin.
Copper + Zinc == Brass.
Copper + Tin == Bronze.
- Copper ore is found in ancient as well as in younger rock formations and occurs as veins and as bedded deposits
- Mining for copper is costly and tedious affair because most of the copper ores contain a small percentage of the metal.
- India has low grade copper ore [less than 1% metal content][international average 2.5%]
- The major part of supply comes from the USA, Canada, Zimbabwe, Japan and Mexico.
Copper Reserves in India
- 46 million tonnes.
- Rajasthan (50%)
- Madhya Pradesh (24%)
- Jharkhand (19%)
- The rest 7 per cent in AP, Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka etc.
- 1st in production [59.85 %].
- Malanjkhand copper mines of Balaghat district are the most important ones.
- Reserves of moderate size are also found in Betul district.
- 2nd in production [28%]
- Found along the Aravali range.
- Ajmer, Alwar, Bhilwara, Chittaurgarh, Dungarpur, Jaipur, Jhunjhunu, Pali, Sikar, Sirohi and Udaipur districts.
- Khetri-Singhana belt in Jhunjhunu district is the most important copper producing area.
- 3rd in production [11 %].
- Singhbhum is the most important copper producing district.
- Found in Hazaribagh district, Santhal Parganas and Palamu districts.
Major Copper Reserves Across the World
- Nickel does not occur free in nature.
- It is found in association with copper, uranium and other metals.
- Important alloying material.
Iron + Nickel == stainless steel.
- It is hard and has great tensile strength.
- Hence nickel steel is used for manufacturing armoured plates, bullet jackets
- Nickel + Copper or Silver == Coins.
- Nickel-aluminium alloys are used for manufacturing aeroplanes and internal combustion engines.
- Metallic nickel is used for making storage batteries and as a catalyst for hydrogenation or hardening of fats and oils intended for use in soap and foodstuffs and in making vanaspati.
- Important occurrences of nickeliferous limonite are found in the Sukinda valley of Jajapur district, Odisha. Here it occurs as oxide.
- Nickel also occurs in sulphide form along with copper mineralization in east Sighbhum district, Jharkhand.
- In addition, it is found associated with uranium deposits at Jaduguda, Jharkhand.
- Other important occurrences of nickel are in Karnataka, Kerala and Rajasthan.
- Polymetallic sea nodules are another source of nickel.
- About 92 per cent resources are in Odisha.
- The remaining 8 per cent resources are distributed in Jharkhand, Nagaland and Karnataka.