Table of Contents
Gold – Silver Distribution – India & World. Gold Reserves in India. Gold Distribution Across the World. Silver Distribution – India & World.
Gold Reserves in India
- Gold usually occurs in auriferous [(of rocks or minerals) containing gold] rocks.
- It is also found in sands of several rivers.
- Gold is also known as international currency.
Resources in terms of the metal ore (primary) are located in
- Bihar (45 per cent)
- Rajasthan (23 per cent)
- Karnataka (22 per cent)
- West Bengal (3 per cent)
- Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh (2 per cent each)
Resources in terms of metal content
- Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, etc.
- Kolar Gold Field, Hutti Gold Field and Ramgiri Gold Field are the most important gold fields.
- Karnataka is the largest producer of gold in India.
- Gold mines are located in Kolar [Kolar Gold Field], Dharwad, Hassan and Raichur [Hutti Gold Field] districts.
- Kolar Gold Fields is one of the deepest mines of the world. [Usually, gold mines are the deepest mines in the world. Mponeng Gold Mine in South Africa is the deepest mine in the world (3.9 km deep)]
- Hutti mines are exploited to their maximum levels and the ore left behind is of very low grade. The mining has almost ceased due to little or no profitability.
- The Kolar Gold Field has also run out of quality reserves and is on the verge of closure.
- Second largest producer of gold in India.
- Ramagiri in Anantapur district is the most important gold field in AP.
- Alluvial Gold [gold scattered in silt] and Placer deposits [gold bearing rocks] in small quantity are widely spread in a large number of rivers
- Sands of the Subarnarekha (gold streak) river have some alluvial gold.
- Sona nadi in Singhbhum district is important.
- Sonapat valley is another major site with alluvial gold.
- The river terraces along the Punna Puzha and the Chabiyar Puzha have some alluvial gold.
Gold Distribution Across the World
- Countries with significant deposits: South Africa, Australia, Indonesia, Canada, Ghana, Chile, China, USA, Russia etc.
Countries with highest gold deposits
Major Gold Producing Countries
Silver Distribution – India & World
- Used in chemicals, electroplating, photography and for colouring glass, etc.
- The chief ore minerals of silver are agentite, stephanite, pyrargyrite and proustite.
- It is found mixed with several other metals such as copper, lead, gold, zinc, etc.
- India is not a major producer of silver in the world.
- Zawar mines in Udaipur district of Rajasthan is the major producer of silver [smelting of galena ore in Hindustan Zinc Smelter].
- The Tundoo Lead Smelter in Dhanbad district of Jharkhand is another major silver producer.
- Some silver is produced by Kolar Gold Fields and Hutti gold mines.
- The Hindustan Copper Ltd. at Maubhandar smelter in Singhbhum district of Jhakhand obtains silver from copper slimes.
- Silver is also produced by Vizag Zinc smelter in Andhra Pradesh from the lead concentrates.