Gold & Silver Distribution across India & World

PMF IAS Environment

Gold – Silver Distribution – India & World. Gold Reserves in India. Gold Distribution Across the World. Silver Distribution – India & World.

Gold Reserves in India

  • Gold usually occurs in auriferous [(of rocks or minerals) containing gold] rocks.
  • It is also found in sands of several rivers.
  • Gold is also known as international currency.

Resources in terms of the metal ore (primary) are located in

  1. Bihar (45 per cent)
  2. Rajasthan (23 per cent)
  3. Karnataka (22 per cent)
  4. West Bengal (3 per cent)
  5. Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh (2 per cent each)

Resources in terms of metal content

  1. Karnataka,
  2. Rajasthan,
  3. Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, etc.
  • Kolar Gold Field, Hutti Gold Field and Ramgiri Gold Field are the most important gold fields.

Karnataka

  • Karnataka is the largest producer of gold in India.
  • Gold mines are located in Kolar [Kolar Gold Field], Dharwad, Hassan and Raichur [Hutti Gold Field] districts.
  • Kolar Gold Fields is one of the deepest mines of the world. [Usually, gold mines are the deepest mines in the world. Mponeng Gold Mine in South Africa is the deepest mine in the world (3.9 km deep)]
  • Hutti mines are exploited to their maximum levels and the ore left behind is of very low grade. The mining has almost ceased due to little or no profitability.
  • The Kolar Gold Field has also run out of quality reserves and is on the verge of closure.

Andhra Pradesh

  • Second largest producer of gold in India.
  • Ramagiri in Anantapur district is the most important gold field in AP.
  • Alluvial Gold [gold scattered in silt] and Placer deposits [gold bearing rocks] in small quantity are widely spread in a large number of rivers

Jharkhand

  • Sands of the Subarnarekha (gold streak) river have some alluvial gold.
  • Sona nadi in Singhbhum district is important.
  • Sonapat valley is another major site with alluvial gold.

Kerala

  • The river terraces along the Punna Puzha and the Chabiyar Puzha have some alluvial gold.

Gold and Silver Distribution India

Gold Distribution Across the World

  • Countries with significant deposits: South Africa, Australia, Indonesia, Canada, Ghana, Chile, China, USA, Russia etc.

Countries with highest gold deposits

Countries with highest gold deposits

Major Gold Producing Countries

Major Gold Producing Countries

Silver Distribution – India & World

  • Used in chemicals, electroplating, photography and for colouring glass, etc.
  • The chief ore minerals of silver are agentite, stephanite, pyrargyrite and proustite.
  • It is found mixed with several other metals such as copper, lead, gold, zinc, etc.
  • India is not a major producer of silver in the world.
  • Zawar mines in Udaipur district of Rajasthan is the major producer of silver [smelting of galena ore in Hindustan Zinc Smelter].
  • The Tundoo Lead Smelter in Dhanbad district of Jharkhand is another major silver producer.
  • Some silver is produced by Kolar Gold Fields and Hutti gold mines.
  • The Hindustan Copper Ltd. at Maubhandar smelter in Singhbhum district of Jhakhand obtains silver from copper slimes.
  • Silver is also produced by Vizag Zinc smelter in Andhra Pradesh from the lead concentrates.

Silver Distribution World

Primary References: NCERT Geography, Indian Geography by Kullar [Amazon and Flipkart], Wikipedia

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2 Comments

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  1. Though Kolar is in AP-Karnataka border, it falls in Karnataka. You have shown it as a part of AP.

    Just letting you know. Thanks for the effort 🙂

 

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