- Manganese is not found as a free element in nature.
- It is often found in combination with iron.
- The most important manganese ore is pyrolusite.
- Manganese is primarily used in iron and steel industry.
- It is the basic raw material for manufacturing steel alloys.
- 6 kilograms of manganese ore is required for manufacturing one tonne of steel.
- It is also used in the manufacturing of bleaching powder, insecticides, paints, and batteries.
Manganese Ore Distribution in India
- India processes second largest reserves in the world after Zimbabwe; 430 million tonnes
- India is the world’s fifth largest producer after China, Gabon, South Africa and Australia.
- Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are the major manganese ore producing states.
- Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh together produce more than half of India’s manganese
State wise reserves of Manganese
- Odisha (44%),
- Karnataka (22%),
- Madhya Pradesh (13%),
- Maharashtra (8%),
- Andhra Pradesh (4%)
- Jharkhand and Goa (3% each),
- Rajasthan, Gujarat and West Bengal (remaining 3 per cent).
- Produces about 27.66 per cent of Indian manganese.
- The main belt is in Nagpur and Bhandara districts.
- High grade ore is found in Ratnagiri district also.
- Produces about 27.59 per cent of India’s manganese ore.
- The main belt extends in Balaghat and Chhindwara districts.
- It is just an extension of the Nagpur Bhandara belt of Maharashtra.
- 24 per cent production. [1st in reserves but 3rd in prduction]
- Gondite [regional names] deposits occur in Sundargarh district and Kodurite and Khondolite deposits in Kalahandi and Koraput Districts.
- Manganese is also mined from the lateritic deposits in Bolangir and Sambalpur districts
- 13% of India’s manganese production.
- Srikakulam and Vishakhapatnam districts.
- Srikakulam district has the distinction of being the earliest producer (1892) of manganese ore in India.
- Cuddapah, Vijayanagaram and Guntur are other manganese producing districts.
- 6 per cent of India’s manganese.
- Uttara Kannada, Shimoga, Bellary, Chitradurg and Tumkur districts.
- Panchmahals and Vadodara in Gujarat,
- Udaipur and Banswara in Rajasthan and
- Singhbhum and Dhanbad districts in Jharkhand are other producers of manganese.
Export of Manganese
- Four-fifths of the total production is consumed domestically.
- Exports constantly decreasing due to increasing domestic demand.
- Japan is the largest buyer of Indian manganese.
- The other buyers are the USA, UK, Germany, France, Norway.
World Manganese Ore Distribution
Primary References: NCERT Geography, Indian Geography by Kullar [Amazon and Flipkart], Wikipedia