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World Migration Report, 2024

  • Context (TH | NDTV): The International Organisation for Migration (IOM) released the World Migration Report 2024.
  • Since 2000, IOM has been producing its flagship world migration reports every two years.

Findings of the report

  • Top five remittance recipient countries: India, Mexico, China, the Philippines and France (2022).
  • Top country-to-country migration corridors: India — United Arab Emirates, India — U.S., India — Saudi Arabia and Bangladesh — India.
  • Largest destination countries for international mobile students: USA, UK, Australia, Germany and Canada.

India Specific Findings

  • In 2022, India received over $111 billion in remittances, the largest in the world, becoming the first country to reach and even surpass the $100 billion mark.
  • There has been a steady growth in remittances to India over the years.
  • India came in 13th as the destination country for immigrants, with 4.48 million people coming from other countries to live in India
  • Nearly 18 million, or 1.3 percent of India’s population, are international migrants, making India the largest source of migrants globally.
  • Major Indian diasporas live in the United Arab Emirates, the United States, and Saudi Arabia.

Climate-Induced Displacement

  • According to the report, by 2050, over 216 million people across six continents are projected to move within their countries due to climate change.
  • Migration serves as a coping or adaptation strategy to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change.
  • Factors like political power, governance, and globalised food production also contribute to migration.

Climate-Induced Displacement Across Regions

North Africa
  • Libya: It faces challenges from the Arab Spring and water scarcity. Natural disasters like the ‘MedicaneDaniel in 2023 have further exacerbated challenges in Libya, particularly in cities like Derna.
  • Algeria & Morocco: Droughts and wildfires have led to significant displacements.
  • Nigeria: In 2022, it experienced the largest number of internal displacements due to disasters in sub-Saharan Africa, mainly caused by floods.
South and East Africa
  • In Ethiopia, Somalia, and Kenya, over 2 million people were displaced internally due to drought.
Southern Africa
  • Cyclone Freddy, which struck Malawi, Mozambique, and Madagascar in early 2023, displaced over 500,000 people in Malawi alone.
  • Pakistan: Floods in 2022 resulted in nearly 1,700 deaths and over 8 million displacements.
  • Bangladesh record-breaking floods in 2022, causing over 1.5 million displacements.
  • Central Asia: Increasing desertification, glacial melt, and dam failures have led to displacements.
    • Water management issues between countries like Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have fueled tensions and clashes.
The Americas, Caribbean and Oceania
  • Brazil: Floods in 2022 displaced over 7lakh people.
  • Peru declared a state of emergency after cyclone Yaku (2023) caused widespread displacement.
  • Chile experienced extremely destructive wildfires in January 2023.
  • Cuba: Hurricane Ian in September 2022 caused 80,000 displacements.
  • Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico: Hurricane Fiona triggered 94,000 displacements.
  • Canada witnessed displacements due to extensive wildfires burning millions of acres by June 2023.
  • Pacific Ocean region: Disasters like tropical cyclones, volcanic eruptions, and droughts frequently cause displacements.
    • In 2021, cyclones Ana & Bina hit the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and Fiji, leading to displacements.
    • They are also vulnerable to slow-onset events like rising sea levels and coastal erosion.

Steps taken to Combat Climate-induced Migration

  • In September 2022, more than 10 states in the East and Horn of Africa signed the Kampala Ministerial Declaration on Migration, Environment, and Climate Change.
  • Argentina introduced a new humanitarian visa pathway in May 2022 for individuals from the Caribbean, Central America, and Mexico displaced by natural events.
  • The United States government planned to provide financial assistance to five Native American tribes in Alaska and Washington for relocation from coastal areas and rivers.
  • Pacific Island governments are discussing a regional framework on climate mobility under the supervision of the Pacific Islands Forum.

International Organisation for Migration (IOM)

  • IOM is the leading inter-governmental organisation in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners.
  • It was established in 1951 as the Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) to help resettle people displaced by World War II.
  • IOM is part of the United Nations system as a related organisation.
  • It currently has 172 member states and 8 states holding observer status. India is a member of IOM.
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland.
  • Areas of work:
    1. Migration and development
    2. Facilitating migration
    3. Regulating migration
    4. Forced migration
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