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Questions

Q1. {Geo – HG – Community} Consider the following statements:

  1. Giri and Tons are the tributaries of Ganga River.
  2. Giri River marks the boundary between HP and Uttarakhand.
  3. Polygyny is a common practice among the Hatti Community.
  4. Hatti community is Governed by a Traditional Council called Khumli.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All

Q2. {Geo – PG – GeoMorphology} Consider the following statements:

  1. P-waves are body waves and are more destructive than surface waves.
  2. In the year 2023, there was reported an increase in the intensity of Earthquakes. It was mainly attributed to the activation of Major Himalayan Thrust Fault in Nepal.
  3. Collapse earthquakes occur due to chemical or nuclear device explosions.
  4. An Aftershock can be of a higher magnitude than the Mainshock.
How many of the above statement(s) is/are incorrect?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All

Q3. {Envi – UNFCCC} Consider the following statements with respect to the Fourth Generation Nuclear Reactor:

  1. The Fourth Generation Nuclear Reactor uses Helium for Cooling the Nuclear Reactor.
  2. Small Modular Reactor design is the key aspect of this generation.
  3. One of the impressive feature of the reactor’s design is it’s inherent safety, as in the event of a sudden reactor failure or external disturbance, the core will not melt.
  4. Generation 4 International Forum brings together 13 Countries including India, as well as Euratum (Representing 27 EU Members) to co-ordinate research and development on these systems.
How many of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All

Q4. {Schemes – Food Processing} Consider the following statements with regards to PM Formalization of Micro Food Processing Enterprises Scheme (PMFME):

  1. It is a Central Sector Scheme.
  2. It provides Credit Linked Subsidies to Micro Enterprises.
  3. It is implemented by Union Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
How many of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All
  4. None

Q5. {IC – Acts} Consider the following statements with respect to the Essential Services Maintainance Act (ESMA):

  1. It is enforced to prohibit strike of employees in certain essential services.
  2. Central Government alone can enforce the ESMA Provisions in specified territories.
  3. After ESMA is invoked, People who commenced the strike and the ones who instigated it, are both liable for a Punishment, including Dismissal.
  4. Any police officer is empowered to arrest the striking person without a warrant.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct ?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. None

Questions with their Answers and Explanation.

Q1. {Geo – HG – Community} Consider the following statements:

  1. Giri and Tons are the tributaries of Ganga River.
  2. Giri River marks the boundary between HP and Uttarakhand.
  3. Polygyny is a common practice among the Hatti Community.
  4. Hatti community is Governed by a Traditional Council called Khumli.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All

Explanation

Statement 1 is incorrect
  • Giri and Tons river are the tributaries of Yamuna River.
  • Giri River is also famous as Giri Ganga and is an important tributary of the Yamuna river. Giri River originates from the hills of Kotkhai and drains at the parts of Himachal in the southeastern areas. It flows through the district of Sirmaur and further merges with the Yamuna River.
  • The Tons is the longest tributary of the Yamuna River and its flows through Garhwal, the western part of the Himalayan state of Uttaranchal. The river originates at an elevation of 3900 m and join the Yamuna below Kalsi near Dehradun, Uttarakhand.
Statement 2 is incorrect
  • Tons River marks the boundary between HP and Uttarakhand.

    Giri-Tons-Yamuna
    Giri-Tons-Yamuna

Statement 3 is incorrect
  • Polyandry is a common practice that is followed amongst the Hatti People.
  • Polyandry, marriage of a woman to two or more men at the same time; the term derives from the Greek polys, “many,” and andros, “man.” When the husbands in a polyandrous marriage are brothers or are said to be brothers, the institution is called adelphic, or fraternal, polyandry.

    A Polyandry Family.
    A Polyandry Family in Himalayan Belt.

  • Polygyny, marriage in which two or more women share a husband. Sororal polygyny, in which the cowives are sisters, is often the preferred form because sisters are thought to be more mutually supportive and less argumentative than nonsiblings.
Statement 4 is correct
  • A rigid caste system is followed, and inter-caste marriages are traditionally discouraged.
  • The Hattis are governed by a traditional council called Khumbli, like the ‘Khaps’ of Haryana.
Answer: (a) Only One | Difficulty Level: Tough

Q2. {Geo – PG – GeoMorphology} Consider the following statements:

  1. P-waves are body waves and are more destructive than surface waves.
  2. In the year 2023, there was reported an increase in the intensity of Earthquakes. It was mainly attributed to the activation of Major Himalayan Thrust Fault in Nepal.
  3. Collapse earthquakes occur due to chemical or nuclear device explosions.
  4. An Aftershock can be of a higher magnitude than the Mainshock.
How many of the above statement(s) is/are incorrect?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All

Explanation

Statement 1 is incorrect
  • P-waves or ‘primary waves’ move faster and are the first to arrive at the surface. The P-waves are similar to sound waves. They travel through gaseous, liquid and solid materials.
  • P-waves vibrate parallel to the direction of the wave. This exerts pressure on the material in the direction of the propagation. As a result, it creates density differences in the material leading to stretching and squeezing of the material.
Statement 2 is incorrect
  • Data indicates increased earthquake activity in 2023.
  • It was mainly attributed to the activation of the Almora fault in Western Nepal.
  • The Almora fault is a high-angle west-northwest-east-southeast to northwest-southeast trending tectonic plane that separates the Garhwal group of inner lesser Himalaya in the north from Jaunsar and Dudatoli groups of outer lesser Himalayas in the south
  • This activation triggered significant mainshock earthquakes.
  • These mainshocks, accompanied by subsequent aftershocks, have led to an increased frequency of earthquakes in 2023.

    Almora Fault
    North Almora Fault

Statement 3 is incorrect
  • In the areas of intense mining activity, sometimes the roofs of underground mines collapse causing minor tremors, these are called collapse earthquakes.
Statement 4 is incorrect
  • A subsequent seismic event can be called an aftershock when:
    • It is smaller in magnitude than the mainshock earthquake.
    • It occurs in the same fault zone as the mainshock earthquake.
  • A subsequent seismic event cannot be called an aftershock when:
    • It occurs in a different tectonic plate than the mainshock earthquake.
    • It is larger in magnitude than the mainshock earthquake.
    • It occurs in a different fault zone than the mainshock earthquake.
Answer: (d) All | Difficulty Level: Medium

Q3. {Envi – UNFCCC} Consider the following statements with respect to the Fourth Generation Nuclear Reactor:

  1. The Fourth Generation Nuclear Reactor uses Helium for Cooling the Nuclear Reactor.
  2. Small Modular Reactor design is the key aspect of this generation.
  3. One of the impressive feature of the reactor’s design is it’s inherent safety, as in the event of a sudden reactor failure or external disturbance, the core will not melt.
  4. Generation 4 International Forum brings together 13 Countries including India, as well as Euratum (Representing 27 EU Members) to co-ordinate research and development on these systems.
How many of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All

Explanation

Statement 1 is correct
  • Instead of using water to cool the system, the high-temperature reactor will be cooled using helium gas, offering a promising way to develop more inland nuclear plants, as they will not need to be located next to a water source.
Statement 2 is correct
  • Small modular reactors (SMRs) are advanced nuclear reactors that have a power capacity of up to 300 MW per unit, which is about one-third of the generating capacity of traditional nuclear power reactors. SMRs, which can produce a large amount of low-carbon electricity, are:
    • Small – physically a fraction of the size of a conventional nuclear power reactor.
    • Modular – making it possible for systems and components to be factory-assembled and transported as a unit to a location for installation.
    • Reactors – harnessing nuclear fission to generate heat to produce energy.
Statement 3 is correct
  • The reactor will not melt when placed under duress and there is no risk of radiation leaks. Aside from a high-degree of safety, the temperature index of the reactor also matches multiple fields including petrochemical engineering, coal chemical industry and hydrogen production.
Statement 4 is incorrect
  • Established in 2001, the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) was created as a co-operative international endeavour seeking to develop the research necessary to test the feasibility and performance of fourth generation nuclear systems, and to make them available for industrial deployment by 2030.
  • The GIF brings together 13 countries (Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Japan, Korea, Russia, South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States), as well as Euratom – representing the 27 European Union members, to co-ordinate research and development on these systems.
Answer: (c) Only three | Difficulty Level: Medium

Q4. {Schemes – Food Processing} Consider the following statements with regards to PM Formalization of Micro Food Processing Enterprises Scheme (PMFME):

  1. It is a Central Sector Scheme.
  2. It provides Credit Linked Subsidies to Micro Enterprises.
  3. It is implemented by Union Ministry of Commerce and Industry.
How many of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All
  4. None

Explanation

Statement 1 is incorrect
  • The PMFME scheme aims to enhance the competitiveness of new and existing individual micro-enterprises in the unorganized segment of the food processing industry and promote formalization of the sector.
  • It is a centrally sponsored scheme with an outlay of Rs. 10,000 crore.
  • The expenditure under the scheme would be shared in 60:40 ratio between Central and State Governments, in 90:10 ratio with North Eastern and Himalayan States, 60:40 ratio with UTs with legislature and 100% by Centre for other UTs.
Statement 2 is correct
  • Support to Individual/Group Category Micro Enterprises:
    • Credit-linked capital subsidy of 35% of the eligible project cost, with a maximum ceiling of Rs.10 lakh per unit.
  • Support to Self-Help Groups (SHGs) for Seed Capital:
    • Seed capital up to Rs. 40,000/- per member of SHG engaged in food processing for working capital and purchase of small tools, subject to a maximum of Rs. 4 lakh per SHG.
  • Support for Common Infrastructure:
    • Credit-linked capital subsidy of 35%, with a maximum of Rs. 3 crore, to support FPOs, SHGs, Cooperatives, and any Government agency for setting up of common infrastructure.
Statement 3 is incorrect
  • Ministry of Food Processing Industries is the Nodal Ministry for the implementation of PMFME.
  • The scheme adopts the One District One Product (ODOP) approach to reap the benefit of scale in terms of procurement of inputs, availing common services and marketing of products.
  • Other Focus areas include Waste to wealth products, minor forest products and Aspirational Districts.
Answer: (a) Only one | Difficulty Level: Easy

Q5. {IC – Acts} Consider the following statements with respect to the Essential Services Maintainance Act (ESMA):

  1. It is enforced to prohibit strike of employees in certain essential services.
  2. Central Government alone can enforce the ESMA Provisions in specified territories.
  3. After ESMA is invoked, People who commenced the strike and the ones who instigated it, are both liable for a Punishment, including Dismissal.
  4. Any police officer is empowered to arrest the striking person without a warrant.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct ?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. None

Explanation

Statement 1 is correct
  • It is an act of the Indian Parliament enacted in 1968 to assure the supply of certain services that, if impeded, would harm people’s daily lives.
  • It is enforced to prohibit striking employees from refusing to work in certain essential services. Employees cannot cite bandhs or a curfew as an excuse not to report to work.
  • Services relating to public conservation, sanitation, water supply, hospitals, or national defence are essential.
  • Any establishment involved in producing, delivering, or distributing petroleum, coal, electricity, steel, or fertiliser also gets classified as providing essential services. Aside from that, any banking-related service may be subject to ESMA.
  • This statute also applies to communication and transportation services and any government initiative relating to the acquisition and distribution of food grains.
Statement 2 is incorrect
  • State governments, acting alone or collaborating with other state governments, can enforce their respective acts in specified territories.
  • Each state has its own ESMA, with provisions that differ slightly from the federal statute. As a result, if the nature of the strike disturbs only one or more states, the states can initiate it.
  • The Act also allows states to choose the essential services on which to enforce ESMA.
  • In a nationwide interruption, particularly involving railways, the central government may activate the ESMA.
Statement 3 is correct
  • Persons who commence the strike as well as those who instigate it are liable to disciplinary action, which may include dismissal.
  • As the strike becomes illegal after ESMA is invoked, legal action can also be taken against these employees.
Statement 4 is correct
  • After the strike is deemed Illegal, Any police officer is empowered to arrest the striking person without a warrant.
Answer: (c) Only three | Difficulty Level: Tough
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