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  • Context (DTE|DTE): Roche, a Swiss multinational healthcare company, has discovered a new class of antibiotics (Zosurabalpin) effective against gram-negative bacteria.
  • Zosurabalpin exhibits strong activity against various species of Acinetobacter that cause pneumonia and sepsis, particularly Carbapenem-resistant A baumannii (CRAB).
  • It is considered a significant development since no antibiotic has been introduced in the last 50 years against gram-negative bacteria.

About Gram-negative bacteria

A screenshot of a computer Description automatically generated

Acinetobacter

  • Acinetobacter belongs to the Gram-negative group of bacteria.
  • These bacteria are ubiquitous in nature and can be found in soil, water, and various environments.
  • It causes a variety of diseases, including lung infections (“pneumonia”), sepsis and blood, wound, or urinary tract infections.

Carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB)

  • An example of harmful Acinetobacter strain is CRAB.
  • It has gained attention due to its ability to develop resistance to multiple antibiotics.
  • CRAB is classified as a priority 1 (critical) pathogen by the WHO. Other drug-resistant forms of bacteria are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacteriaceae.
  • According to the 2019 report of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention on antibiotic resistance, CRAB was responsible for killing 700 people in 2017 and added about $281 million in healthcare costs.

Sepsis

  • Sepsis is a life-threatening condition arising from the body’s overreactive response to an infection, leading it to injure its own tissues and organs.
  • Bacterial infections cause most cases of sepsis. Sepsis can also result from other infections, including viral infections, such as COVID-19 or influenza, or fungal infections.

National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC)

  • The Institute is under the administrative control of the Director General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • The Institute has its headquarters in Delhi.
  • It functions as the nodal agency in the country for disease surveillance, facilitating prevention and control of communicable diseases.
  • It also deals with Anti-Microbial Resistance (AMR).

Global Point Prevalence Survey (PPS)

  • It is developed by WHO.
  • Global-PPS creates global awareness about antibiotic use and resistance.
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