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Daily Prelims Practise Questions (PPQs) – October 28 2023

Table of contents

Questions

Q1. {Health – Issues} Consider the following statements:

  1. Monosodium Glutamate (Ajinomoto) is primarily used to enhance the savory taste of food and to increase its nutritional value.
  2. Monosodium Glutamate is the sodium salt of glutamic acid (a common amino acid).
  3. Glutamic acid is not a natural product found in human bodies. But it has been found in fish.
How many of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None of the above

Q2. {Health – Issues}: Consider the following statements regarding Heavy Metals:

  1. They are a group of chemical elements with relatively high atomic weights and densities.
  2. They can either be essential or toxic to living organisms.
  3. Heavy metals like iron, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic are toxic to living organisms, even in trace amounts.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q3. {IR – Groupings} Consider the following statements regarding the Arctic Council:

  1. It is the leading intergovernmental forum promoting cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic people, states, and inhabitants.
  2. It enforces its guidelines, assessments, or recommendations on the member countries.
  3. All the Arctic states are members of the Arctic Council.
  4. India is an associate member of the Arctic Council.
How many of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q4. {S&T} The term “Dark Patterns” in the context of digital design is associated with which of the following?

  1. A user experience design strategy involving subtle visual cues and psychological triggers to enhance user engagement and satisfaction.
  2. A comprehensive set of practices for user interfaces, ensuring user transparency, informed consent, and data privacy.
  3. A social media platform that uses personalized recommendations to keep users engaged, even if those recommendations adversely affect the users.
  4. None of the above.

Q5. {Envi – Conservation} Consider the following statements regarding ‘Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB)’:

  1. It is a geoengineering technique designed to increase the albedo of marine clouds with the goal of reflecting sunlight and mitigating global warming.
  2. It involves releasing sulphur aerosols into the atmosphere to create artificial clouds over the ocean, thus cooling the Earth’s surface.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None

Q6. {Envi – Degradation} Consider the following statements regarding the ‘Mountain Chicken Frog’:

  1. It is endemic to the Western Ghats.
  2. Its conservation status has improved over the past decade due to successful breeding and reintroduction programs.
  3. Its large makes it particularly vulnerable to predation and habitat loss.
  4. The IUCN status of the species is “Endangered”.
How many of the above statements is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Q7. {IE – Issues} Considering the changes in the market share of cargo handling in India, select the option that best reflects the observed trend in the last decade:

  1. Private entities collectively gained more market share than Central government-controlled ports between 2013 and 2023.
  2. Central government-controlled ports consistently outperformed private entities in market share growth between 2013 and 2023.
  3. Private entities and Central government-controlled ports showed similar market share changes over the years.
  4. There is not enough information to conclude the market share trends in cargo handling.

Questions With Solution and Explanation

Q1. {Health – Issues} Consider the following statements:

  1. Monosodium Glutamate (Ajinomoto) is primarily used to enhance the savory taste of food and to increase its nutritional value.
  2. Monosodium Glutamate is the sodium salt of glutamic acid (a common amino acid).
  3. Glutamic acid is not a natural product found in human bodies. But it has been found in fish.
How many of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. All three
  4. None of the above

Explanation

Statement 1 is incorrect
  • Ajinomoto is a brand name for monosodium glutamate (MSG).
  • It is primarily used to enhance the savory taste of foods; it has no nutritional value.
Statement 2 is correct
  • It is the sodium salt of glutamic acid (a common amino acid).
Statement 3 is incorrect
  • Glutamic acid is abundant in our bodies and is found in meat, fish, eggs, dairy, tomatoes, corn, etc.
Answer: (a) Only one

Q2. {Health – Issues}: Consider the following statements regarding Heavy Metals:

  1. They are a group of chemical elements with relatively high atomic weights and densities.
  2. They can either be essential or toxic to living organisms.
  3. Heavy metals like iron, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic are toxic to living organisms, even in trace amounts.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Explanation

Statement 1 is correct
  • Heavy metals are a group of chemical elements with relatively high atomic weights and densities.
  • These metals occur naturally in Earth’s crust, but human activities like industrial processes, mining, and burning fossil fuels have increased their release into the environment.
Statement 2 is correct
  • Depending on their concentration and the specific metal, heavy metals can either be essential or toxic to living organisms.
Statement 3 is incorrect
  • Essential Heavy Metals: Heavy metals, such as copper, zinc, and iron, are essential micronutrients living organisms require in trace amounts for biochemical and physiological functions. E.g., iron is crucial for oxygen transport in hemoglobin and zinc for enzymatic reactions.
  • Toxic Heavy Metals: Heavy metals like lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium can be toxic to living organisms, even at low concentrations. They can cause a range of health problems.
Answer: (a) 1 and 2 only

Q3. {IR – Groupings} Consider the following statements regarding the Arctic Council:

  1. It is the leading intergovernmental forum promoting cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic people, states, and inhabitants.
  2. It enforces its guidelines, assessments, or recommendations on the member countries.
  3. All the Arctic states are members of the Arctic Council.
  4. India is an associate member of the Arctic Council.
How many of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Explanation

Statement 1 is correct
  • The Arctic Council is the leading intergovernmental forum promoting cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic States, Arctic Indigenous Peoples, and other Arctic inhabitants.
  • It was formally established in 1996 through the Ottawa Declaration.
Statement 2 is incorrect
  • The Arctic Council cannot implement/enforce its guidelines, assessments, or recommendations. The responsibility belongs to individual Arctic States or international bodies.
Statement 3 is correct
  • All the Arctic states are members of the Arctic Council.

Arctic Council Member States Arctic Council Member States

Statement 4 is incorrect
  • India is not an Associate member, but India was given the Observer status in 2013.
Answer: (b) Only two

Q4. {S&T} The term “Dark Patterns” in the context of digital design is associated with which of the following?

  1. A user experience design strategy involving subtle visual cues and psychological triggers to enhance user engagement and satisfaction.
  2. A comprehensive set of practices for user interfaces, ensuring user transparency, informed consent, and data privacy.
  3. A social media platform that uses personalized recommendations to keep users engaged, even if those recommendations adversely affect the users.
  4. None of the above.

Explanations

  • Dark patterns” refer to design techniques that use deceptive and manipulative tactics to nudge or trick users into taking actions they may not want to take, often for the benefit of the designer.
  • It is a deceptive practice employed to influence user behavior in a way that benefits the company implementing it.
Answer: (c) A social media platform that uses personalized recommendations to keep users engaged, even if those recommendations adversely affect the users.

Q5. {Envi – Conservation} Consider the following statements regarding ‘Marine Cloud Brightening (MCB)’:

  1. It is a geoengineering technique designed to increase the albedo of marine clouds with the goal of reflecting sunlight and mitigating global warming.
  2. It involves releasing sulphur aerosols into the atmosphere to create artificial clouds over the ocean, thus cooling the Earth’s surface.
Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?
  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None

Explanation

Statement 1 is correct
  • Marine cloud brightening (MCB) is a geoengineering technique that produces brighter and whiter low marine clouds. Thus increasing the albedo.
  • Such clouds reflect sunlight away from the ocean’s surface and protect corals from bleaching.
Statement 2 is incorrect
  • MCB does not involve releasing chemicals like sulfur aerosols into the atmosphere.
  • Stratospheric aerosol injection is a proposed method of solar geoengineering to reduce global warming. It involves introducing sulfur aerosols (which are highly reflective) into the stratosphere to create a cooling effect via global dimming and increased albedo.
  • Marine cloud brightening (MCB) involves spraying tiny seawater droplets into the air.
  • As the tiny seawater droplets evaporate, they leave behind sea salt. These additional sea salts, when incorporated into a cloud, brighten the cloud (increasing the albedo).
Answer: (b) 1 only

Q6. {Envi – Degradation} Consider the following statements regarding the ‘Mountain Chicken Frog’:

  1. It is endemic to the Western Ghats.
  2. Its conservation status has improved over the past decade due to successful breeding and reintroduction programs.
  3. Its large makes it particularly vulnerable to predation and habitat loss.
  4. The IUCN status of the species is “Endangered”.
How many of the above statements is/are correct?
  1. Only one
  2. Only two
  3. Only three
  4. All four

Explanations

Statement 1 is incorrect
  • The Mountain Chicken Frog is primarily found in the Caribbean Islands of Dominica, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Saint Kitts, Nevis, etc.
Statement 2 is incorrect
  • Mountain chicken frog faces imminent extinction in the wild.
  • It is virtually wiped out from the island of Dominica by the chytrid fungus.
Statement 3 is correct
  • Due to its large size, the Mountain Chicken Frog is always at risk of predation and is considered one of the most vulnerable species to habitat loss among all amphibians.
Statement 4 is incorrect
Answer: (a) Only one

Q7. {IE – Issues} Considering the changes in the market share of cargo handling in India, select the option that best reflects the observed trend in the last decade:

  1. Private entities collectively gained more market share than Central government-controlled ports between 2013 and 2023.
  2. Central government-controlled ports consistently outperformed private entities in market share growth between 2013 and 2023.
  3. Private entities and Central government-controlled ports showed similar market share changes over the years.
  4. There is not enough information to conclude the market share trends in cargo handling.

Explanations

  • Adani group’s market share in total cargo handled has increased from 9% in 2013 to 24% in 2023, while Central govt-controlled ports dropped to 54.5% in 2023 from 58.5% in 2013.
  • This shows that the private party gained more market share.
  • Adani Ports and SEZ Private Ltd (APSEZ) is now India’s largest commercial port operator.

Answer: (a) Private entities collectively gained more market share than Central government-controlled ports between 2013 and 2023.

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