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Sanjay Gandhi National Park

  • It is a protected area in Mumbai, Maharashtra.
  • The Kanheri caves (important Buddhist learning centers) is located centrally in the park.
  • It also houses the famous Jain temple called Trimurti. It has three huge idols of Lord Adinath and his two sons, Lord Bahubali and Lord Bharata.
  • The karvi (or karvy) shrub, that blooms only once in eight years is seen in abundance throughout the park.
  • Dahisar River, originates in the Tulsi Lake in Sanjay Gandhi National Park

Warli Tribes

  • They are spread across Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Goa and the Union Territories of Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu.
  • They speak an unwritten Varli language which belongs to the southern zone of the Indo-Aryan languages.

Warli Art

  • It is the tribal paintings of Maharashtra that are done traditionally in the homes of the Warlis.
  • These paintings do not depict mythological characters or images of deities but depict daily and social events of the Warli tribe.
  • They are like pre-historic cave paintings in execution and usually depict scenes of human figures engaged in activities like hunting, dancing, sowing and harvesting.
  • These paintings are mainly dominated by basic geometric shapes like circles, triangles, and squares.
  • Women are mainly engaged in the creation of these paintings.

Indian Leopard


  • These are the smallest of the big cats known for their ability to adapt to a variety of habitats.
  • They are elusive and nocturnal animals.
  • Population: 12,000-14,000 individuals.
  • Conservation status: IUCN Red List: Vulnerable (VU) | WPA: Schedule I.
  • Habitat: Tropical rainforests, dry deciduous forests, temperate forests, and northern coniferous forests. They do not occur in the mangrove forests of the Sundarbans and deserts.
  • Lifestyle: Solitary animals.
  • Pregnancy duration: 90 to 105 days.
  • Threats: Poaching, loss of habitat and fragmentation, human-animal conflict.
  • According to the ‘Status of Leopards in India 2018′ report, Madhya Pradesh has the highest number of leopards (3,421) followed by Karnataka (1783) and Maharashtra (1690)
  • Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Mumbai) has the highest density of leopards found anywhere else in the world (21 per 100 square km).

Ways to reduce human-leopard conflict

  • Habitat Management: Identify and protect key leopard habitats to minimize human encroachment. Establish buffer zones between leopard territories and human settlements.
  • Community Awareness: Conduct educational programs to inform local communities about leopard behavior and ecology.
  • Livestock Management: Implement secure livestock housing and fencing to prevent leopard attacks on domestic animals.
  • Early Warning Systems: Develop and implement early warning systems to alert communities about leopard presence in the vicinity. Use technology like motion-sensor cameras and GPS tracking to monitor leopard movements.
  • Conflict Resolution Teams: Establish rapid response teams to address leopard-human conflicts promptly. Train local personnel in non-lethal methods of managing leopard encounters.
  • Human Behavior Modification: Encourage responsible behavior in the presence of leopards, such as avoiding confrontations and not provoking the animals.
  • Research and Monitoring: Conduct studies to better understand leopard behavior and movement patterns.
  • International Collaboration: Collaborate with neighboring regions and share best practices and research findings to develop comprehensive strategies for reducing leopard-human conflict.
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