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- India has the largest number of wild Asian elephants in the world, estimated at 27,312 according to the 2017 census, about 55% of the species’ global population.
- They range in 33 Elephant Reserves spread over 10 elephant landscapes in 14 states, covering about 80,000 sq km of forests across India.
- The ‘home range’ of an elephant herd can vary from an average of about 250 sq km (in Rajaji NP) to over 3500 sq km (in the highly fragmented landscapes of West Bengal).
|Elephant Range||Elephant Reserve||Area (Km2)||Population|
|1||East-Central Landscape (South-West Bengal – Jharkhand – Orissa)||1.||Mayurjharna Elephant Reserve – WB||414||96|
|2.||Singhbhum Elephant Reserve – Jharkhand||4530||371|
|3.||Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve – Odisha||3214||465|
|4.||Mahanadi Elephant Reserve – Odisha||1038||464|
|5.||Sambalpur Elephant Reserve – Odisha||427||284|
|6.||Baitami Elephant Reserve – Odisha||1755||108|
|7.||South Orissa Elephant Reserve – Odisha||4216||138|
|8.||Lemru Elephant Reserve – Chhattisgarh||450||NA|
|9.||Badalkhol-Tamorpingla Elephant Reserve – CH||1048||NA|
|2||Kameng-Sonitpur Landscape (Arunachal – Assam)||10.||Kameng ER||1892||NA|
|3||Eastern-South Bank Landscape (Assam – Arunachal)||12.||Dihing-Patkai ER||937||295|
|13.||South Arunachal ER||1958||129|
|4||Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong-Intanki Landscape (Assam – Nagaland)||14.||Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong ER||3270||1940|
|5||North Bengal- Greater Manas Landscape (Assam – West Bengal)||17.||Chirang-Ripu ER||2600||658|
|18.||Eastern Dooars ER||978||300-350|
|6||Meghalaya Landscape||19.||Garo Hills ER||3500||1047|
|7||Brahmagiri-Nilgiri-Eastern Ghat Landscape (Karnataka – Kerala – Tamil Nadu – Andhra)||21.||Mysore ER||6724||4452|
|8||Anamalai-Nelliampathy – High Range Landscape (Tamil Nadu – Kerala)||27.||Anamalai ER||1457||179|
|9||Periyar-Agasthyamalai Landscape (Kerala – Tamil Nadu)||29.||Periyar ER||3742||1100|
|10||North-Western Landscape (Uttarakhand – Uttar Pradesh)||31.||Shivalik ER||5405||1510|
|32.||Uttar Pradesh ER||744||NA|
|33.||Terai Elephant Reserve||3049||NA|
|TOTAL (Individual Elephant Reserve Population data is from 2005)||~80,000||29,964|
East-Central Landscape (WB – Jharkhand – Orissa)
Mayurjharna Elephant Reserve – West Bengal
- Location: Portion of Midnapore, Bankura, and Purulia districts of West Bengal. On the west, it is contiguous with the Singhbhum Elephant Reserve (Jharkhand). On the south, it is contiguous with the Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve (Odisha).
Singhbhum Elephant Reserve – Jharkhand
- Location: East & West Singhbhum & Saraikela-Kharsawan districts of Jharkhand. It comprises Saranda Singhbhum Range forests and Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary (near Jamshedpur).
- Saranda forest (820 km²) is the biggest sal forest in Asia. The forests stand atop one of the world’s largest single deposits of iron ore.
- West Singhbhum accounts for almost the entire share of iron ore mined in the state. Iron ore mining has caused significant destruction in the region.
Mayurbhanj Elephant Reserve – Odisha
- Location: Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar districts of Odisha.
- It comprises Similipal TR, Hadgarh Wildlife Sanctuary and Kuldiha Wildlife Sanctuary.
Mahanadi Elephant Reserve – Odisha
- It consists of Satkosia TR and its adjoining Wildlife Sanctuary.
- Satkosia TR = Satkoshia Gorge Wildlife Sanctuary + Baisipalli Wildlife Sanctuary.
Sambalpur Elephant Reserve – Odisha
- Location: on the banks of the river Mahanadi in Sambalpur district of central Odisha.
Baitami (Brahmani-Baitarani) Elephant Reserve – Odisha
- Location: Portions of Keonjhar, Sundargarh, Angul and Dhenkanal districts.
South Orissa Elephant Reserve – Odisha
- Location: Parts of Ganjam, Gajapati, Kandhamal, Rayagada & Kalahandi districts.
Lemru Elephant Reserve – Chhattisgarh
- Location: Portions of Surguja, Korba, Jashpur and Raigarh districts in Northern Chhattisgarh.
- Lemru Elephant Reserve was declared in 2019 to preserve the Hasdeo Arand forest (which has high-quality coal reserves).
- The reserve is a refugee for elephants migrating from Jharkhand, where open cast mining is rampant. But these districts are also a hotbed for coal mining.
Badalkhol-Tamorpingla Elephant Reserve – Chhattisgarh
- Location: Surajpur district, Chhattisgarh.
- It constitutes Badalkhol Wildlife Sanctuary and forests between Badalkhol Wildlife Sanctuary and Guru Ghasidas NP.
Kameng Elephant Reserve – Arunachal Pradesh
- Location: Foothills of the Himalayas in West Kameng and East Kameng districts of Arunachal Pradesh.
- The Sessa Orchid Sanctuary, the Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary, the Pakke TR are a part of this reserve.
Sonitpur Elephant Reserve – Assam & Arunachal Pradesh
- Location: Along the border of Arunachal and Assam.
- It is the southern extension of Kameng ER. The Nameri TR and Sonai Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary are a part of this reserve.
Dihing-Patkai Elephant Reserve – Assam
- Location: Dibrugarh and Tinsukia of Assam.
- The Dihing Patkai NP is a part of Dehing Patkai ER.
South Arunachal Elephant Reserve – Arunachal Pradesh
- Namdapha TR is a part of thisER.
- It is contiguous with the Dihing-Patkai ER.
Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong Elephant Reserve – Assam
- Location: East Karbi Anglong district. It extends from Brahmaputra River in north to the Karbi Anglong hills in south.
- Kaziranga TR, Nambor-Doigrung Wildlife Sanctuary, Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary, Nambor Wildlife Sanctuary are a part of this ER.
Dhansiri-Lungding Elephant Reserve – Assam
- It extends from the south of Kaziranga-Karbi Anglong Elephant Reserve to Dhansiri River.
- It is contiguous with the Intanki Elephant Reserve (Nagaland).
Intanki Elephant Reserve – Nagaland
- Location: South Nagaland.
Singphan Elephant Reserve – Nagaland
- Location: Mon district of Nagaland.
- It is contiguous with the Dihing-Patkai Elephant Reserve (Assam).
Chirang-Ripu Elephant Reserve – Assam
- Ripu and Chirang are two contiguous reserve forests, in extreme western Assam bordering West Bengal. They are part of the buffer zone of Manas TR. These forests have the largest known population of the endangered Golden Langur (EN). Ripu-Chirang is a conservation link between Buxa Tiger Reserve (in WB)-Phipsu Wildlife Sanctuary (in Bhutan)-Royal Manas National Park (in Bhutan)-Manas National Park (India).
Eastern Dooars Elephant Reserve – West Bengal
- Location: Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal. It consists of Jaldapara NP, Pakhi Bitan Wildlife Sanctuary and parts of Buxa TR.
Dooars or Duars
Garo Hills Elephant Reserve – Meghalaya
- Location: East and West Garo Hills of Meghalaya.
- It consists of Nokrek NP, Balpakram National Park and Siju Wildlife Sanctuary and the surrounding Reserved Forests.
Khasi Hills Elephant Reserve – Meghalaya
- Location: West Khasi Hills and South West Khasi Hills.
Mysore Elephant Reserve – Karnataka
- It is an integral part of Muttodi (Bhadra TR) – Brahmagiri – Nagarholle Tiger Reserve – Bandipur Tiger Reserve Corridor. Nagarhole Tiger Reserve and Bandipur Tiger Reserve are a part of the Nilgiri BR.
Wayanad Elephant Reserve – Kerala
- Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary is declared as an ER.
- It is contiguous with the Mysore Elephant Reserve and Nilgiri ER.
- Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary and Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary are a part of the Nilgiri BR.
Nilgiri Elephant Reserve – Tamil Nadu
- Nilgiri Elephant Reserve consists of the entire Nilgiri BR of Tamil Nadu.
- Supreme Court recently upheld the Tamil Nadu government’s authority to notify an ‘elephant corridor’ and protect the migratory path of the animals through the Nilgiri BR. SC said that it was the State’s duty to protect a “keystone species” such as elephants.
- Nilgiri BR is the largest protected forest area in India, spanning across Tamil Nadu, Karnataka & Kerala.
- Nilgiri Elephant Corridor is situated in the Masinagudi area near Mudumalai National Park in the Nilgris district.
- The corridor is situated in the ecologically fragile Sigur plateau. It connects the Western & the Eastern Ghats & sustains elephant populations & their genetic diversity.
Rayala Elephant Reserve – Andhra Pradesh
- Kaundinya Wildlife Sanctuary in Andhra Pradesh is declared as Rayala ER. It is located where the Kolar Plateau ends and slopes down into the plains of Tamil Nadu.
Nilambur Elephant Reserve – Kerala
- Location: Palakkad, Malappuram and Kozhikkode districts. Salient Valley NP, New Amarambalam Wildlife Sanctuary are a part of this ER. It is contiguous with the Waynad ER and Nilgiri ER.
Coimbatore Elephant Reserve – Tamil Nadu
- Location: Forests near Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu adjacent to the Nilambur ER.
- Anamudi ER and Anamalai ER are separated from Nilgiris by Palakkad Gap.
Anamalai Elephant Reserve – Tamil Nadu
- Anamalai TR is declared as Anamalai ER. It is contiguous with the Anamudi Elephant Reserve (Kerala).
Anamudi Elephant Reserve – Kerala
- Nelliampathy Forest, Parambikulam TR and Munnar Wildlife Division of Idukki district are a part of this ER.
- Anamudi Shola NP, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Eravikulam NP, Kurinjimala Wildlife Sanctuary, Mathikettan Shola NP, Pampadum Shola NP are all part of Munnar Wildlife Division.
Periyar Elephant Reserve – Kerala
- Location: Cardamom Hills and Pandalam Hills of the south Western Ghats along the TN border.
- Periyar National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary was declared as an Periyar ER.
- Srivilliputhur Grizzled Squirrel Wildlife Sanctuary was established to protect the grizzled giant squirrel (NT). It was later declared as an ER. It is contiguous with the Periyar ER.
- Recently, Centre notified Agasthiyamalai Elephant Reserve in Tamil Nadu. Agasthiyamalai Elephant Reserve is also a BR. It includes Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary, Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, and Kalakkad Mundanthurai TR.
- It is located in the southernmost end of the Western Ghats. It encompasses tropical forest ecosystems that fall within the Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari districts of Tamil Nadu and the Thiruvananthapuram and Kollam districts of Kerala.
Shivalik Elephant Reserve – Uttarakhand
- Location: Shivalik Hills of Uttarakhand.
- It constitutes Jim Corbett TR, Rajaji TR, Sonanadi Wildlife Sanctuary, Dehra Dun forests and other Shivalik forest divisions sprawling in Garhwal and Kumaon hills.
Uttar Pradesh Elephant Reserve – Uttar Pradesh
- It constitutes Shivalik forest division in Saharanpur & Bijnore districts adjoining the Shivalik Hills of Uttarakhand.
Terai Elephant Reserve – Uttar Pradesh
- MoFE has given clearance to the Terai ER. It will be the 2nd Elephant Reserve in Uttar Pradesh and 33rd in India. It will include Dudhwa TR, Pilibhit TR and areas of Kishanpur and Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary. It will provide conservation to four wild species, i.e., tiger, Asian elephant, swamp deer and one horned rhinoceros.