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Current Affairs October 08-09, 2023: Israel-Palestine Conflict, Iron Dome System, R21/MatrixM Malaria Vaccine

{GS2 – Health – Diseases} R21/MatrixM: New Malaria Vaccine

  • Established in 2001, WHO Prequalification ensure that medicines supplied by procurement agencies (like UNICEF, UNITAID, etc.) meet quality, safety and efficacy standards.


  • Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.
  • It is caused by single-celled microorganisms of the Plasmodium group of protozoans (microscopic heterotrophs that live as predators or parasites).


  • Five Plasmodium species cause malaria in humans.
    • Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax pose the greatest threat.
    • Recent evidence has shown drug-resistant mutations in Plasmodium Falciparum.
    • P. ovale and P. malariae generally cause a milder form of malaria.
    • P. knowlesi rarely causes disease in humans.
  • Transmission: Infected female Anopheles mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium parasites through bites. The parasites multiply in the liver and destroy red blood cells (RBCs).
  • Symptoms: Fever, chills, yellow skin, seizures etc.
  • Treatment: It is preventable as well as curable. Prevention of malaria includes medications and mosquito elimination.
  • Distribution: It is mostly found in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, Asia, and South America.
  • Currently, none of the two malaria vaccines is approved to be used in India.

Global Scenario of Malaria and Why Malaria Vaccine for Childeren is Required

  • According to WHO, in 2021, worldwide there were 247 million malaria cases and 6,19,000 deaths.
  • African Region accounted for 95% of all malaria cases and 96% of all malaria deaths in 2021.
  • Children under age five accounted for about 80% of all malaria deaths in the African Region.
  • Moreover, 25 million children are born yearly in countries with moderate to high malaria transmission.

Challenges to Malaria Control and Elimination

  • The emergence of drug-resistant malaria parasites
  • The spread of insecticide resistance in mosquitoes
  • Climate change, which is expanding the range of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes
  • Political instability and conflict, which can disrupt malaria control efforts

About R21/MatrixM: The New Malaria Vaccine

Malaria Vaccine

  • It is the world’s second WHO-recommended malaria vaccine for children, after RTS,S in 2021.
  • It is developed by Oxford University and manufactured by the Serum Institute of India (SII).
  • The new vaccine will be sold under the brand Mosquirix.
  • It has been approved for use in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Nigeria for children under 36 months.
  • This vaccine is meant for children under the age of five years
  • It has three primary doses and a booster shot after a year.
  • It is specific to Plasmodium falciparum. So, it cannot be used to prevent infections caused by other malaria parasites like Plasmodium vivax.
  • It uses the same adjuvant, Matrix M, as the COVID-19 vaccine, Novavax, a version of which was also rolled out by SII.
  • Adjuvant: A substance that is added to a vaccine to enhance the immune response to the vaccine.
  • Matrix M: It is a proprietary saponin-based adjuvant from Novavax, licensed to the SII for use in endemic countries, while Novavax retains commercial rights in non-endemic countries.

Benefits of the R21 Malaria Vaccine:

  • High efficacy: It has an efficacy of 75% in areas with seasonal prevalence and 68% in areas where the disease circulates all year round.
  • Low cost: It is about half the price of RTS,S, the only other malaria vaccine available.
  • Mass production: Serum Institute of India has the potential to mass-produce it on a large scale.

Efficacy of R21 Malaria Vaccine

  • The vaccine efficacy was maintained for 18 months, with a single booster dose given 12 months after the primary series.
  • Efficacy is higher in younger children (5-17 months) than older ones (18-36 months), suggesting potential lower effectiveness in those previously exposed to malaria.
  • Also, the vaccine was more efficacious in seasonal malaria areas than in perennial ones. This suggests the vaccine will be not highly effective for children in areas with very high malaria incidence.

How the Malaria Vaccines Works?

  • Vaccines are designed to stimulate the immune system against specific infectious diseases.
  • Both the newly endorsed malaria vaccines, R21 and RTS,S, are sub-unit vaccines that aim to protect against malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasite.
  • They contain the circumsporozoite protein, which coats the surface of the P. falciparum parasite.
  • The protein on the vaccines triggers an immune response against the P. falciparum parasite
  • It’s a bit like how most COVID vaccines target the “spike” protein on the surface of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID) to block the virus.
  • Sub-unit Vaccine is a type of vaccine that contains only a portion of the pathogen (such as a protein or antigen) rather than the whole microorganism.
  • Both malaria vaccines are administered with an adjuvant and contain the same parasite protein target, but they are designed with different amounts of parasite protein and unique adjuvants.

Challenges in Eradication of Malaria in Children

  • Administration of booster shots: The trials show that yearly boosters will be required to maintain protection. But boosters are challenging to administer even in areas with robust health systems.
  • Non-integration with children vaccination programmes: To date, neither malaria vaccine has been integrated into other childhood vaccination programs, placing an additional burden on communities.
  • Very high malaria-risk areas: There is a risk that previous malaria infection can block the efficacy of vaccines, leaving those most at risk with reduced protection.

Need of Malaria Vaccine for India

  • Context (TH): Both the endorsed malaria vaccines does not target the malaria in India which is caused by Plasmodium vivax parasites.
  • They target only the malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum parasites which is the deadliest.

Malaria Scenario in India

  • India saw an 85.1% decrease in malaria cases and an 83.36% drop in deaths from 2015 to 2022.
  • However, according to the WHO, India accounts for 83% of malaria cases in southeast Asia.
  • India is now in a lower-endemic area, reporting fewer than 100 deaths in the last two to three years.

Does India Need a Malaria Vaccine?

  • Before rolling out any vaccine or any programme, we must do a cost-benefit analysis.
  • WHO has done this assessment only in high burden countries where vaccine is cost-effective.
  • In low-burden countries like India, vaccination is not very cost-effective.
  • Moreover, Plasmodium Vivax is not a very severe variant.

Way Forward

  • Many countries like Sri Lanka, Maldives and China, which were high burden countries, eliminated malaria only by control measures.
  • There are various control measures under the National Vector Disease Control programme need to be accelerated.

Way Ahead

Malaria Vaccines with Wider Coverage

  • Both endorsed vaccines only target one type of malaria, that is, caused by P. falciparum parasites. It’s the deadliest form of malaria, so vaccine efforts have primarily targeted this species.
  • These vaccines don’t protect against other malaria types, esp. P. vivax, a major concern in SE Asia.
  • So, it is essential to develop second-generation malaria vaccines, which can:
    • Induce high levels of sustained protection without the need for yearly boosters
    • Protect against all malaria types (particularly P. vivax)
    • Protect children who have the highest malaria risk

{GS2 – IR – Israel-Palestine} Israel-Palestine Conflict

  • Context (TH): Palestinian militant group Hamas launched an attack on Israel.
  • The leader of Hamas’s military wing said the attack was in response to the:
    • Continued illegal occupation of Palestinian lands by Israel.
    • Continued blockade of Gaza
    • Israeli raids inside West Bank cities over the past year
  • Some experts believe the recent attacks are Hamas’s response to normalising relations between Israel and other West Asian countries.
  • Hezbollah declared its solidarity with the “Palestinian resistance.”

Hezbollah (Party of God)

  • Hezbollah is a Shiite Muslim political party and militant group based in Lebanon.
  • Hezbollah originated during the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990).
  • It wields significant power in Lebanon. It currently holds 13 of the country’s 128-member Parliament. Along with allies, it is part of the ruling government.
  • Iran provides funds and training to the budding militia of Hezbollah.
  • In the past, it has carried out global terrorist attacks.
  • Parts of Hezbollah in some cases, the entire organization — have been designated as a terrorist group by the United States and many other countries.

What are Hezbollah’s aims?

  • It functions as a proxy for Iran and opposes Israel and Western influence in West Asia.
  • Israel and Hezbollah first fought a war in 2006.

Iran-Israel proxy conflict

  • Iran and Israel are engaged in a proxy war.
  • Supporters of Israel believe Iran threatens Israel and wants to eliminate it.
    • Iran has provided financial support, weapons, and training to groups like Lebanese Hezbollah and Palestinian Islamic Jihad (PIJ).
    • These groups have attacked Israel, and many countries label them terrorist organizations.
  • Supporters of Iran argue Israel’s presence in the Arab region justifies Iran’s actions.

Genesis of the Conflict Between Isreal and Palestine

  • During the late 19th century, Zionism emerged, aiming to establish a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
  • Zionism tried to bring the Jewish people back to their historic homeland.
  • It gained momentum with the publication of Theodor Herzl’s pamphlet “The Jewish State.”
  • Herzl’s pamphlet proposed a Jewish homeland as a solution to the “Jewish question.”
  • As a result, many Jews immigrated to the Ottoman Empire and later Palestine.

Israel Palestine Gaza West Bank

After World War I

  • After the Ottoman Empire was defeated in World War I, Britain took control of Palestine.
  • Palestine was inhabited by a Jewish minority and an Arab majority.
  • Many Jewish people moved to Palestine in the 1920s and 1940s to find a safe place to live because they were facing a lot of problems in Europe. For Jews, Palestine was their ancestral home.
  • The international community gave Britain the task of establishing a “national home” for Jewish people in Palestine.
  • Palestinian Arabs claimed the land and opposed the move. From then, tensions between Jews and Palestinian Arabs grew.
  • The Ottoman Empire controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

Hamas (Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiya)

  • It is a Palestinian political group with military capabilities founded in 1987.
  • Hamas won the Palestinian parliamentary elections in 2006. It has run the Gaza Strip since 2007.
  • It is a de facto governing authority of the Gaza Strip.
  • It refuses to recognise the state of Israel and violently opposes the Oslo peace accords.
  • It is designated as a terrorist organisation by Israel, the US, the EU, Canada, Egypt, and Japan.
  • The elections did not happen in Palestine since 2006.


  • It is a city in Western Asia, on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
  • Israelis and Palestinians claim Jerusalem as their capital.
  • It is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions:
    1. Judaism
    2. Christianity
    3. Islam


  • Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism.
  • It has been the ancestral and spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BC.
  • During classical antiquity, Jerusalem was considered the centre of the world, where God resided.


  • In the Christian faith, Jerusalem is where Jesus was brought as a child to be presented at the Temple.
  • According to the Gospels, Jesus preached and healed in Jerusalem, especially in the Temple courts.


  • In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city after Mecca and Medina.
  • Muslims believe Muhammad was transported to Jerusalem during his Night Journey.

Arab World vs. Isreal

First Arab-Israeli War

  • In 1947, the United Nations voted to divide Palestine into:
    • Separate Jewish and Arab states
    • With Jerusalem under international administration.
  • That plan was accepted by Jewish leaders but rejected by the Arab side and never implemented.
  • The British rulers left in 1948, and Jewish leaders declared the creation of Israel.
  • The creation of Israel sparked the first Arab-Israeli War in 1948.
  • The war ended in 1949 with Israel’s victory. After the war:
    • Israel controlled most of the territory.
    • Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians fled or were driven from their homes.
    • Territory was divided into three parts:
      1. State of Israel
      2. West Bank (of the Jordan River): occupied by Jordan.
      3. Gaza Strip: occupied by Egypt.
  • Jerusalem was divided between Israeli forces in the West and Jordanian forces in the East.
  • Over the following years, tensions rose, particularly between Israel, Egypt, Jordan, and Syria.

Second Arab-Israeli War

  • On 26 July 1956, Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal and closed the canal to Israeli shipping.
  • In October 1956, Israel invaded the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip with British and French military support.
  • In November, the UN called for Britain, France, and Israel to withdraw their troops from Egypt.
  • In January 1957, Israel withdrew from Egyptian land, except from the Gaza Strip and the Gulf of Aqaba, arguing that the Gaza Strip never belonged to Egypt.

Six-Day War (Third Arab-Israeli War)

  • In June 1967, Israel attacked Egyptian and Syrian air forces and started the Six-Day War.
  • After the war, Israel gained territorial control over:
    • The Sinai Peninsula and Gaza Strip from Egypt
    • The West Bank and East Jerusalem from Jordan
    • The Golan Heights from Syria.

Camp David Accords

  • In 1979, representatives from Egypt and Israel signed the Camp David Accords.
  • It ended the thirty-year conflict between Egypt and Israel.
  • It led to Israel’s complete withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula.
  • The two countries agreed to allow self-rule for Palestinians living in occupied territories.

First Intifada

  • In 1987, Palestinians living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip revolted against the Israeli government and started the first intifada.
  • The first lasted from 1987 to 1993, and the second from 2000-2005.

Oslo Accords

  • Oslo Accords are a series of agreements between Israel and the Palestinians signed in the 1990s. 

Oslo I Accords (1993)

  • It set up a framework for the Palestinians to govern themselves in the West Bank and Gaza.
  • It enabled mutual recognition between the newly established Palestinian Authority and Israel.

Oslo II Accords (Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement) (1995)

  • The Israeli-Palestinian Interim Agreement sought to implement the first Oslo peace deal.
  • It expanded the first agreement, adding provisions that mandated the complete withdrawal of Israel from six cities and 450 towns in the West Bank.
  • The interim pact was only supposed to last five years, but it has tacitly been rolled over for more than two decades.
  • The question of Jerusalem was left undecided under the Oslo Accords.

Aftermath of Oslo Accord

  • After a wave of violence in 2015, the Palestinian President announced that Palestinians would no longer be bound by the Oslo Accords.
  • In January 2020, the Trump administration released its long-awaited “Peace to Prosperity” plan. Palestinians rejected it.

Abraham accord

  • Abraham accord (Israel-Arab normalisation) is an agreement for normalising relations between Israel and four Arab countries:
    1. Bahrain (August 2020)
    2. United Arab Emirates (September 2020)
    3. Sudan
    4. Morocco
  • In 2020, Israel, UAE and Bahrain signed an agreement to normalise ties. The USA brokered it.
  • Subsequently, Morocco and Sudan were added.

UNESCO, US and Israel

  • UNESCO criticised Israel’s occupation of East Jerusalem and granted full membership to Palestine in 2011.
  • Accusing UNESCO of anti-Israel bias, the US and Israel formally quit UNESCO in 2019.
  • US rejoined the UNESCO in 2023.

Current Status

  • Most Palestinian refugees and their descendants live in Gaza and the West Bank.
  • Israel has withdrawn from Gaza, but it continues to occupy the West Bank.
  • Israel considers the “complete and united Jerusalem” its capital, while Palestinians claim East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state.
  • The US is one of only a handful of countries to recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital.

Yom Kippur war (October war / Ramadan war / Fourth Arab Israeli war)

  • The Hamas surprise attack is being compared to the Yom Kippur War.
  • The Yom Kippur War was fought between Israel on one side and Egypt and Syria on the other, from October 6 to 25, 1973.
  • Egypt and Syria launched a coordinated attack on Israel. While Israel was aware of troop mobilisation, it had not expected an attack in the Holy Islamic month of Ramadan.
  • Caught by surprise, Israel took time to mobilise its own soldiers, many of whom were on leave for Yom Kippur.
  • Thus, initially, both Syria and Egypt made some gains. However, Israel soon launched its own counterstrike and beat back both attackers.
  • However, the significant number of casualties it incurred highlighted Israel’s vulnerability in combat.

Yom Kippur

  • Yom Kippur is a Jewish holiday called the “Day of Atonement.”
  • On this day, the Jewish people seek forgiveness for their sins, both towards God and other people.
  • They do this through prayer, fasting, and reflection.

Consequences of the Current Conflict

  • It has an immediate impact on the 90 lakh Indian community that lives and works in the Middle East.
  • Following groupings or deals will face difficulties due to the unrest in the Middle East.
    • The US-brokered Abraham Accords.
    • I2U2 (India, Israel, US, and UAE), which is an economic grouping.
    • The India-Middle East-Europe Economic Corridor.

India’s Enduring Support for the Palestinian Cause

  • India’s support for the Palestinian cause is an integral part of the nation’s foreign policy.
  • In 1974, India became the first non-Arab state to recognize the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as the sole and legitimate representative of the Palestinian people.
  • In 1988, India became one of the first countries to recognize the Palestinian State.
  • In 1996, India opened its Representative Office in Gaza, which was later shifted to Ramallah in 2003.
  • India voted in favour of Palestine becoming a full member of UNESCO.
  • In 2012, India co-sponsored and voted in favour of the UNGA Resolution that enabled Palestine to become a ‘non-member Observer state’ at the UN without voting rights.
  • In 2015, India supported the Bandung Declaration on Palestine at the Asian African Commemorative Conference.
  • In 2015, the 60th Asian African Commemorative Conference adopted the Bandung Declaration on Palestine. It sought the liberation of Palestine from illegal Israeli Occupation.

{GS2 – IR – UN} Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

  • Context (IE I TOI): Russia has signalled a potential withdrawal from the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).
  • CTBT is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions for military or peaceful purposes.
  • Although it was adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1996, it’s still in the ratification stage.

Evolution of CTBT

  • The US conducted the world’s first successful nuclear weapons test in July 1945.
  • Four years later, the Soviet Union tested their first nuclear weapon, triggering a decades-long arms race between the two superpowers.
  • Between 1945 and 1996, more than 2,000 nuclear tests were carried out; there was criticism from around the globe due to concerns about its effects on health and the environment.

Limited Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (LTBT) 1963

  • The Limited Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (LTBT) was one of the first such attempts to curb nuclear tests.
  • It prohibited nuclear testing in the atmosphere, outer space, and underwater, but underground tests were still permitted.
  • To tackle the limitations of LTBT, a comprehensive test ban was discussed during the negotiation of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty in 1968. However, no agreement was reached on the issue.

Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) 1974

  • The Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT) was established in 1974.
  • The treaty aimed to limit nuclear tests that produced yields exceeding 150 kilotons.
  • The main objective of the TTBT was to reduce the explosive power of new nuclear warheads.

Nuclear Tests Post-CTBT

  • Since the CTBT, 10 nuclear tests have taken place. India conducted two in 1998, Pakistan also two in 1998, and North Korea conducted tests in 2006, 2009, 2013, 2016 (twice) and 2017.
  • The United States last tested in 1992, China and France in 1996, and the Soviet Union in 1990.
  • Russia, which inherited most of the Soviet nuclear arsenal, has never conducted a nuclear test.

Which key countries haven’t ratified CTBT?

  • Notably, for the treaty to enter into force, 44 countries with nuclear technology must sign and ratify it, eight of which have yet to ratify the agreement: China, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, North Korea, Pakistan and the US.

{GS2 – Polity – IC – Election} Reservation to SCs and STs

  • Context (LiveLaw): A Constitution Bench of the SC will hear a case challenging the reservations provided for SCs and STs in LS and State Legislative Assemblies.
  • The bench will decide the validity of the Constitution(104th) Amendment Act 2019, which extended the political reservations for SC/STs by another ten years.

Constitutional Provisions

  • Articles 330 of IC provided the reservation for SCs and STs in the LS in proportion to their population in the state.
  • Articles 332 of IC provided the reservation for SCs and STs in the State Legislative Assemblies in proportion to their population.
  • Article 334 of IC, in its original form, provided the reservations for SCs/STs and Anglo-Indians in LS and the State Assemblies for ten years from the commencement of the Constitution.
  • It means reservations for SCs/STs and Anglo-Indians in LS and the State Assemblies would end in 1960. However, the provision was amended from time to time to extend the period of reservation by ten years.
  • In 2019, the 104th Amendment to the IC:
    • Extended the reservation for SCs/STs by another ten years by substituting the word “70 years” with “80 years”.
    • Put an end to reservations for Anglo-Indians.

Constitution Bench

  • According to Article 145(3) of IC, when a case involves a substantial question of law related to the interpretation of the Constitution, it must be decided by a Bench of at least five judges.
  • Such a bench is called a constitution bench. It will have five or more judges of the SC.
  • In India, these benches are temporary and are dissolved once a legal question or issue is settled.
  • In September 2023, CJI D.Y. Chandrachud expressed his intentions to make the Constitution Bench a “permanent feature” of the SC.

Articles 331 of IC

  • The President can nominate a maximum of two Anglo-Indian members to LS if he believes the Anglo-Indian Community is not adequately represented.

Articles 333 of IC

  • The Governor can nominate one Anglo-Indian member to the State Legislative Assemblies if he believes the Anglo-Indian Community is not adequately represented.

{GS3 – IE – RBI} Card-on-File Tokenisation (CoFT)

  • Context (TOI I MINT): The RBI is considering directly introducing Card-on-File Tokenisation (CoFT) creation facilities at the issuer bank level.
  • Currently, CoF tokens can only be created through the merchant’s application or webpage.
  • The RBI has prohibited merchants from storing customer card details on their servers and mandated the adoption of card-on-file (CoF) tokenisation as an alternative.
  • Tokenisation is a service where a unique alternate code is generated to facilitate transactions through cards. It involves substituting a 16-digit customer card number with a token.
  • The tokenised data is stored to bill the cardholders’ accounts for future purchases.
  • The customer need not pay any charges for availing of this service.
  • Tokenisation is not mandatory for a customer, and those who choose not to let their card be tokenised can continue to transact as before by entering card details manually.

Card-on-File Tokenisation (CoFT) Debit or Credit Card

{GS3 – IE – RBI} PIDF scheme

  • Context (IE): RBI extended the Payments Infrastructure Development Fund (PIDF) scheme by two years and included PM Vishwakarma Scheme beneficiaries to promote digital transactions.
  • The PIDF is a fund set up by RBI, with major authorised card networks, to facilitate the development of payment acceptance infrastructure in tier-3 to tier-6 cities and northeastern states.
  • The fund will be operational for three years, effective 1st January 2021 and may be extended for two more years. It aims to add 30 lakh devices yearly through subsidised POS devices.
  • PIDF shall be governed by an ex-officio Advisory Council (AC) under the chairmanship of the RBI deputy governor.
  • The scheme is expected to benefit the acquiring banks/non-banks and merchants by lowering overall acceptance infrastructure costs.

Vishwakarma Scheme

  • It aims to support traditional artisans and craftspeople in rural and urban India.
  • It will improve the quality and reach of products and services of artisans and craftspeople.


  • Skill upgradation and Toolkit incentive
  • Incentive for digital transactions
  • Holistic Institutional and Marketing support


  • The scheme will be implemented in two phases.
    • A Rs 15,000 grant will be provided as a toolkit incentive.
    • A Rs 500 stipend will be provided for skill training.
  • It provides collateral-free enterprise development loans of:
    • ₹1 lakh (first tranche to be repaid in 18 months)
    • ₹2 lakh (second tranche to be repaid in 30 months).
  • A concessional rate of interest of 5% will be charged from the beneficiary.
  • The Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises will pay interest subvention cap of 8%.

{GS3 – S&T – Defence} Iron Dome System

  • Context (HT I IE I BBC): The Iron Dome is a key feature of Israel’s all-weather air defence system, developed by state-owned Rafael Advanced Defence Systems with the backing of the US.
  • The Iron Dome is a ground-to-air defence system capable of tracking and neutralising any rocket or missiles fired towards targets in Israel.
  • The system does not shoot down all the rockets on Israel’s radar. It first uses an Artificial Intelligence-based mechanism to determine whether an incoming rocket is an interpreted threat.

How does the Iron Dome System works?

  • The Iron Dome operates through a three-part system for comprehensive protection:
    1. Detection and Tracking Radar: This component identifies and accurately tracks incoming threats.
    2. Battle Management and Weapon Control System (BMC): This element connects the radar and the interceptor missile.
    3. Missile Firing Units: Once launched, the missile manoeuvres independently, targeting objects. They use a proximity fuse, activated within 10 meters of the target, to ensure precise destruction.

Operation Al-Aqsa Flood

  • The near-perfect air defence system was overpowered after a barrage of rockets from Hamas.
  • Hamas, officially known as the Islamic Resistance Movement, was founded in 1987 to establish a Palestinian state incorporating present-day Israel and the West Bank.
  • For several years, the group Hamas has been trying to find a weakness in the Iron Dome system.
  • They have succeeded mainly by overwhelming the system with a Salvo rocket attack (multiple rockets launched in a short time), making it difficult to intercept all targets.
  • This time, 5,000+ rockets were launched in just 20 mins after it declared Operation Al-Aqsa Flood.
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