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Table of contents
  • Context (LM): Researchers created a functional semiconductor from graphene.
  • Graphene is a single layer (monolayer) of pure carbon, tightly bound in a hexagonal honeycomb lattice. It is an allotrope of carbon.
  • It is extracted from graphite. Graphite is arranged in a 3D crystalline manner, whereas, graphene is a 2D crystal, only an atom thick.


  • Graphene is the thinnest (one atom thick) compound known.
  • It is the lightest material known and the strongest compound discovered (between 100-300 times stronger than steel, and harder than diamond).
  • It is an excellent conductor of electricity and has high thermal conductivity.
  • It is flexible, transparent, and has a large surface area.

General 4


  • Electronics industry: It is used in applications ranging from miniaturised electronics to biomedical devices due to its thin composition and high conductivity.
  • Biomedical industry: It can be used for targeted drug delivery, ‘smart’ implants, etc.
  • Automobile industry: Graphene is highly inert and so can act as a corrosion barrier between oxygen and water diffusion.
  • Potential alternative to lithium-ion batteries: It can be used to develop smaller, slimmer batteries with higher capacity, faster charging, and increased longevity than traditional batteries.

For details on Semiconductor >Semiconductor Manufacturing in India

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