Table of Contents
- 1 Major International Conventions to Protect Environment
- 2 UNCED – Earth Summit 1992, Rio De janeiro Brazil
- 3 Convention on Biological Diversity
- 4 United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)
- United Nations Conference On Environment And Development (UNCED) [This post]
- Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) [This post]
- Ramsar Convention on Wetlands [Given in “Wetland Ecosystem”]
- Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) [Given in “IUCN Red List”]
- The Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network (TRAFFIC) [Given in “IUCN Red List”]
- Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS)
- Global Tiger Forum (GTF)
Hazardous material [Given in “Solid Waste”]
- Stockholm Convention
- Basel Convention
- Rotterdam Convention
- United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) [This Post]
- International Whaling Commission (IWC)
- Vienna convention and Montreal Protocol [Explained in “Ozone Depletion”]
- United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) [Next Post]
- Kyoto Protocol [Next Post]
- Earth Summit 1992 is also known as The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED).
- As a follow-up, the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Rio+10) was held in 2002 in Johannesburg, South Africa.
- 190 countries pledged their commitment to achieve by 2010, a significant reduction in the current rate of biodiversity loss at global, regional and local levels.
- In 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development was also held in Rio, and is also commonly called Rio+20 or Rio Earth Summit 2012.
What is Rio+20 Conference, often mentioned in the news?
- It is the United nations Conference on Sustainable Development
- It is a Ministerial Meeting of the World Trade Organization
- It is a Conference of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change
- It is a Conference of the Member Countries of the Convention on Biological Diversity
Answer: a) United nations Conference on Sustainable Development
The issues touched included
- checking production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals,
- alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels,
- new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities,
- the health problems caused by polluted air and smoke, and
- the growing usage and limited supply of water.
- Agenda 21 is an action plan of the United Nations (UN) related to sustainable development.
- It was an outcome of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992.
- The number 21 refers to an agenda for the 21st century.
- An important achievement of the summit was an agreement on the Climate Change Convention which in turn led to the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement.
- Important legally binding agreements (Rio Convention) were opened for signature:
- Convention on Biological Diversity [This Post]
- United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification [This Post]
- Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) [Next Post]
- Biodiversity knows no political boundaries and its conservation is therefore a collective responsibility of all nations.
- Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is a step towards conserving biological diversity or biodiversity with the involvement of the entire world.
- The historic Convention on Biological Diversity (Biodiversity Convention – a multilateral treaty) was opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and entered into in 1993.
- The convention called upon all nations to take appropriate measures for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable utilisation of its benefits.
- The Convention has three main goals:
- conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity);
- sustainable use of its components; and
- fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.
- It is often seen as the key document regarding sustainable development.
- The Convention is legally binding; countries that join it (‘Parties’) are obliged to implement its provisions.
- 195 UN states and the European Union are parties to the convention.
- All UN member states—with the exception of the United States—have ratified the treaty.
- At the 2010 10th Conference of Parties (COP) to the Convention on Biological Diversity in October in Nagoya, Japan, the Nagoya Protocol was adopted.
- CBD covers the rapidly expanding field of biotechnology through its Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.
- It addresses technology development and transfer, benefit-sharing and biosafety issues.
- The Biosafety Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the potential risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.
- The Nagoya Protocol is a 2010 supplementary agreement to the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
- The Nagoya Protocol is about “Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization”, one of the three objectives of the CBD.
- It is the second Protocol to the CBD; the first is the 2000 Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.
- Popularly known as the International Seed Treaty.
- International agreement in harmony with the Convention on Biological Diversity.
- Aims at guaranteeing food security through the conservation, exchange and sustainable use of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA), as well as the fair and equitable benefit sharing arising from its use.
Consider the following international agreements:
- The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
- The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
- The World Heritage Convention
Which of the above has/have a bearing on the biodiversity?
- 1 and 2 only
- 3 only,
- 1 and 3 only
- 1, 2. and 3
World Heritage Convention explained in “Biodiversity”, Rest two in this section.
- UNCCD is a Convention to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought through national action programs (NAP).
- NAP incorporate long-term strategies supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements.
- The Convention stemmed from a direct recommendation of the Rio Conference’s Agenda 21, was adopted in Paris, France in 1994 and entered into force in 1996.
- It is the only internationally legally binding framework set up to address the problem of desertification.
- The Convention is based on the principles of participation, partnership and decentralization—the backbone of Good Governance and Sustainable Development.
- It has 196 parties, making it truly global in reach.
- To help publicize the Convention, 2006 was declared “International Year of Deserts and Desertification”.
- The UN Convention to Combat Desertification has established a Committee on Science and Technology (CST).
- CST is composed of government representatives competent in the fields of expertise relevant to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought.
- UNCCD collaborates closely with Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).