Table of Contents
UNFCCC: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
- International environmental treaty that came into existence under the aegis of UN.
- UNFCCC is negotiated at the Earth Summit 1992.
- Signed in 1992, New York City.
- As of March 2019, UNFCCC has 197 parties.
- Role: UNFCCC provides a framework for negotiating specific international treaties (called “protocols”) that aim to set binding limits on greenhouse gases.
- Objective of UNFCCC: Stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous consequences.
- Legal Effect: Treaty is considered legally non-binding.
- The treaty itself sets no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries.
- In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol (3rd COP) was concluded and established legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions.
Kyoto Protocol (COP 3; UNFCCC Summit 1997)
- The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997.
- India ratified Kyoto Protocol in 2002.
- The Kyoto Protocol came into force in February 2005.
- There are currently 192 Parties.
- USA never ratified Kyoto Protocol.
- Canada withdrew in 2012.
- Goal: Fight global warming by reducing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere to “a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.”
- Kyoto protocol aimed to cut emissions of greenhouse gases across the developed world by about 5 per cent by 2012 compared with 1990 levels.
- The Protocol is based on the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities.
- Kyoto Protocol is the only global treaty with binding limits on GHG emissions.
- It puts the obligation to reduce current emissions on developed countries on the basis that they are historically responsible for the current levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
CBDR divides countries into two categories.
- Historically biggest polluting developed countries like US, UK, France, Japan, Russia etc. (they are polluting the earth since Industrial Revolution).
- Recently polluting developing countries like China, India, Brazil, etc. (polluting since 1950s).
- “Common” Every country (both developing and developed) must take part in the fight against climate change.
- “But differentiated responsibilities” Historically biggest polluters should do more compared to the recent polluters, i.e., responsibilities proportional to pollution caused.
- Thus, under CBDR, developed countries like US, UK, Russia etc. must contribute more to reduce GHGs.
- They must accept to certain binding limits on GHG emissions.
- They must contribute funds towards reducing GHG emissions in developing and least developed countries.
- On the other hand, developing and least developed countries should do everything possible to cut down their GHG emissions. But nothing is binding on them, and every initiative is voluntary.
- Developing countries may volunteer to become Annex I countries when they are sufficiently developed.
- Under Kyoto Protocol, there are two commitment periods:
- 2008 – 2012 and
- 2013 – 2020.
- The second commitment period was agreed on in 2012, known as the Doha Amendment to the protocol.
- Each commitment period has its own binding targets set for developed countries to reduce their GHG emissions.
- Nations that miss their Kyoto target in 2012 will incur a penalty of an additional third added to whatever cut they agree under a new treaty in Copenhagen.
- During first commitment period (2008-12), more than 35 countries had binding targets.
- Canada withdrew in 2012 after the first commitment period.
- Japan, New Zealand and Russia have participated in Kyoto’s first-round but have not taken on new targets in the second commitment period.
- As of January 2019, 124 states have accepted the Doha Amendment, while entry into force requires the acceptances of 144 states.
- Thus, the second commitment period is a failure.
- Negotiations were held in Lima in 2014 to agree on a post-Kyoto legal framework that would obligate all major polluters to pay for CO2 emissions.
- China, India, and the United States (three big villains) have all signalled that they will not ratify any treaty that will commit them legally to reduce CO2 emissions.
- Carbon dioxide (CO2),
- Methane (CH4),
- Nitrous oxide (N2O),
- Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6),
- groups of hydro fluorocarbons (HCFs) and
- groups of Per fluorocarbons (PFCs).
- Countries bound to Kyoto targets have to meet them largely through domestic action — that is, to reduce their emissions onshore.
- But they can meet part of their targets through three “market-based mechanisms”.
The Kyoto Flexible Market Protocol mechanisms include:
- Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)
- Emission Trading
- Joint Implementation (JI)
- CDM allows a country with an emission-reduction or emission-limitation commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to implement an emission-reduction project in developing countries.
- Hypothetical E.g. of CDM: Australia takes up or finances some environment benefitting project in India (solar power projects, wind power projects, afforestation etc.) and earns some carbon credits (certified emission reduction credits). Now it shows these earned carbon credits to the world and tells them how it is working towards meeting its Kyoto targets.
- Such projects can earn saleable certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting Kyoto targets.
- In simple terms: Developed countries emit more and lose carbon credits. They provide financial assistance to developing and least developed countries to create clean energy (solar, wind energy etc.) and gain some carbon credits thereby meeting their Kyoto Quota (Kyoto units) of emissions without violations.
- Suppose a developed country has a Kyoto Quota of 100 Carbon Credits, it can emit 100 tonnes of CO2.
- Due to negligence it emits 110 tonnes of CO2, i.e. 10 carbon credits are lost (Kyoto Quota violation).
- Now the country has to make up for its lost carbon credits to avoid penalty.
- So, it invests some money (equal to 10 carbon credits) in developing and LDCs to build clean energy infrastructure like solar plants, wind farms etc. and will make up for its 10 lost carbon credits and avoid penalty.
- Carbon trading is the name given to the exchange of emission permits.
- This exchange may take place within the economy or may take the form of international transaction.
- Under Carbon Credits Trading mechanism countries that emit more carbon than the quota allotted to them buy carbon credits from those that emit less.
- In Carbon trading, one credit gives the country or a company right to emit one tonne of CO2.
- A developing nation such as India, turns out to be a seller of such credits, which eventually provides them with monetary gains.
- Carbon credits are traded at various exchanges across the world.
- Multi-Commodity Exchange of India (MCX) launched futures trading in carbon credits in 2009.
Types of Carbon trading
- Emission trading and
- Offset trading.
- Emissions trading allows countries to sell unused emission units to countries that have exceeded their targets.
- Carbon is tracked and traded like any other commodity in a “carbon market.”
Other trading units in the carbon market:
- A removal unit (RMU) by reforestation.
- An emission reduction unit (ERU) generated by a joint implementation project.
- A certified emission reduction (CER) generated from a clean development mechanism project activity.
- Another variant of carbon credit is to be earned by a country by investing some amount of money in such projects, known as carbon projects, which will emit lesser amount of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere.
- For example, suppose a thermal plant of 800 megawatt capacity emit 400 carbon-equivalent in the atmosphere. Now a country builds up an 800 megawatt wind energy plant which does not generate any amount of emission as an alternative of the thermal plant. Then by investing in this project the country will earn 400 carbon-equivalent.
- Offset Trading is a variant of Emission Trading or Carbon Trading.
Carbon tax (not related to Kyoto Protocol)
- If a country does not meet the requirements for measurements and reporting, the country loses the privilege of gaining credit through joint implementation projects.
- If a country goes above its emissions cap and does not try to make up the difference through any of the mechanisms available, then said country must make up the difference plus an additional thirty percent during the next period.
- The country could also be banned from participating in the ‘cap and trade’ program.
- The mechanism known as “joint implementation,” allows a country with an emission reduction commitment under the Kyoto Protocol (Annex B Party) to earn emission reduction units (ERUs) from an emission-reduction project in another Annex B Party, each equivalent to one tonne of CO2, which can be counted towards meeting its Kyoto target.
- Joint implementation offers Parties a flexible and cost-efficient means of fulfilling a part of their Kyoto commitments, while the host Party benefits from foreign investment and technology transfer.
Q. Regarding “carbon credits”, which one of the following statements is not correct?
- The carbon credit system was ratified in conjunction with the Kyoto Protocol.
- Carbon credits are awarded to countries or groups that have reduced greenhouse gases below their emission quota.
- The goal of the carbon credit system is to limit the increase of carbon emission quota.
- Carbon credits are traded at a price fixed from time to time by the United Nations Environment Programme.
- Answer d) Carbon credit prices are traded on an exchange. So, their prices are never fixed.
- Stimulating green investment in developing countries.
- Including the private sector in this endeavour to cut and hold steady GHG emissions at a safe level.
- It also makes “leap-frogging” –– possibility to skip older, dirtier technology for newer, cleaner infrastructure and systems, with obvious longer-term benefits.
- Strengthen the Protocol’s environmental integrity, support the carbon market’s credibility and ensures transparency of accounting by Parties.
- Under Kyoto Protocol, Annex 1 countries can meet their targets by cutting emissions or buying unused allowances (carbon credits, carbon trading) from other countries. This kind of approach ignores long term social and economic costs. It is like committing only half of what one needs to commit.
- Kyoto Protocol is based on the “common but differentiated responsibility” approach to global warming. Under CBDR, many countries were allowed to increase pollution.
- It excluded most polluting countries like China and India, which have since become the world’s largest and fourth largest polluters.
- After the Kyoto Protocol, parties to the Convention have agreed to further commitments.
- CMP: Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
- COP11 / CMP 1 was held in Montreal, Canada in 2005 (Kyoto Protocol was ratified in 2005).
Bali (Indonesia) Climate Change Conference 2007 (COP 13; CMP 3)
COP 13: It is the13th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC
CMP 3: It is the 3rd session of the COP serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.
- Governments adopted the Bali Road Map.
Bali Road Map included:
- Reaching an agreed outcome and adopting a decision at COP15 in Copenhagen.
- The review of the financial mechanism, going beyond the existing Global Environmental Facility.
Poznan (Poland) Climate Change Conference 2008 (COP 14; CMP 4)
- It launched the Adaptation Fund under the Kyoto Protocol.
- The Fund is financed in part by government and private donors, and also from a 2% share of proceeds of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) issued under Clean Development Mechanism projects.
Copenhagen (Denmark) Climate Change Conference 2009 (COP 15; CMP 5)
- The Copenhagen Accord included the goal of limiting the maximum global average temperature increase to no more than 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, subject to a review in 2015.
- Developed countries promised to provide US$30 billion for the period 2010-2012, and to mobilize long-term finance of a further US$100 billion a year by 2020 from a variety of sources.
- Parties agreed to commit to a maximum temperature, rise of 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels, and to consider lowering that maximum to 1.5 degrees in the near future.
- Parties agreed to establish a Green Climate Fund to provide financing to projects, programmes, policies and other activities in developing countries via thematic funding windows.
- Governments also agreed to include carbon capture and storage (CCS) in the projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), subject to technical and safety standards.
Durban (Denmark) Climate Change Conference 2011 (COP 17; CMP 7)
- The outcomes included a decision by Parties to adopt a universal legal agreement on climate change as soon as possible, and no later than 2015.
- Second phase of Kyoto Protocol was secured.
- Approved the Governing Instrument for the GCF.
- COP 16 ==> Decision Made to Establish GCF.
- COP 17 ==> Parties approved the Governing Instrument for the GCF ==> Legal Approval
- COP 18 ==> Songdo, Incheon, Republic of Korea will host GCF.
- The Fund will start operating from 2013.
- It is a mechanism to redistribute money from the developed to the developing world.
- GCF will help developing countries financially in adapting mitigation practices to counter climate change.
- It is intended to be the centrepiece of efforts to raise Climate Finance of $100 billion by 2020.
Q. Which of the following statements regarding ‘Green Climate Fund’ is/are correct?
- It is intended to assist the developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change.
- It is founded under the aegis of UNEP, OECD, Asian Development Bank and World Bank
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: a) 1 only
Doha (Qatar) Climate Change Conference 2012 (COP 18; CMP 8)
- The conference reached an agreement to extend the life of the Kyoto Protocol, which had been due to expire at the end of 2012, until 2020 (second commitment period 2013 – 2020).
- The extension of the Kyoto Protocol until 2020 limited in scope to only 15% of the global CO2 emissions.
- This was due to the lack of participation of Canada, Japan, Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, New Zealand and the United States. (they all refused to join the second commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol)
- Also, developing countries like China, India and Brazil are not subject to any emissions reductions under the Kyoto Protocol.
- The conference made little progress towards the funding of the Green Climate Fund.
Warsaw (Poland) Climate Change Conference 2013 (COP 19; CMP 9)
- The conference led to an agreement that all states would start cutting emissions as soon as possible, but preferably by the first quarter of 2015.
- The term Intended Nationally Determined Contributions was coined in Warsaw.
- Further the Warsaw Mechanism was proposed, which would provide expertise, and possibly aid, to developing nations to cope with loss and damage from such natural extremities as heatwaves, droughts and floods and threats such as rising sea levels and desertification.
- The overarching goal of the conference is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) to limit the global temperature increase by 2030 to 2 degrees Celsius above 1850 baseline or Pre Industrial era.
- The agreement urged parties to take national pledges by finalizing their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) by November 2015 (before Paris Summit).
- No agreement was reached due to lack of consensus between developed and developing countries.
- Wealthy nations like the U.S, EU argued that emissions from developing countries are consistently rising and they need to commit to more serious emission cuts.
- But India accused them of watering down the CDR principle envisaged in earlier.
- India stuck to its conventional position that the developed countries should shoulder a bigger burden as they are responsible for the problem in the first place.
- India confirmed that poverty alleviation would continue to be its primary concern and hence it will not compromise with its share of carbon credits.
- China agreed a deal in 2014 under which its emissions would peak by 2030 (after 2030, it will start reducing its carbon footprint).
- India, the world’s third largest carbon emitter, is under pressure to make commitments like China.
- India says carbon emissions will grow as it strives to beat poverty.
- India wants to use its carbon credits to alleviate poverty and is not ready to accept anything other than ‘common but differentiated responsibilities’.
- India must demonstrate concerns about climate change issues (2015 Chennai floods, 2013 Uttarakhand floods, 2018 Kerala floods are all the effects of climate change).
- Emissions in India are rising dangerously, and the environmental costs will offset all its economic progress.
- India had to make a pragmatically determined national pledge before Paris Summit (India announced its INDC in October 2015).
- No agreement was reached in Lima.
- All agreements and decisions were reserved for Paris Summit 2015.
- Paris Summit is one of the most important environmental conference because of the INDC commitments made by major polluters.
- The conference objective is to achieve a legally binding and universal agreement on climate to be signed in 2015 and implemented by 2020.
- Prior to the conference, 146 national climate panels publicly presented draft national climate contributions (so-called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, INDCs).
- However, no detailed timetable or country-specific goals for emissions were incorporated into the Paris Agreement – as opposed to the previous Kyoto Protocol.
- There will be neither a mechanism to force a country to set a target by a specific date nor enforcement measures if a set target is not met.
- The conference negotiated the Paris Agreement, a global agreement on the reduction of climate change.
- It entered into force in November 2016 after (ratification by 55 countries that account for at least 55% of global emissions) had been met.
- Signatories: 195 as of 2019; 180+ countries have ratified; India signed and ratified in 2016.
- The expected key result was an agreement to set a goal of limiting global warming to “well below 2 °C” Celsius compared to pre-industrial levels.
- The agreement calls for zero net anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to be reached during the second half of the 21st century.
- In the adopted version of the Paris Agreement, the parties will also “pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C.”
- The 1.5 °C goal will require zero emissions sometime between 2030 and 2050, according to some scientists.
- The developed countries reaffirmed the commitment to mobilize $100 billion a year in climate finance by 2020 and agreed to continue mobilizing finance at the level of $100 billion a year until 2025.
- In 2017, United States announced that the U.S. would cease all participation in the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change mitigation.
- In accordance with Article 28 of the Paris Agreement, the earliest possible effective withdrawal date by the United States cannot be before November 2020. Thus, The U.S. will remain a signatory till November 2020.
Climate Neutral Now
- The UNFCCC secretariat launched its Climate Neutral Now initiative in 2015.
- The following year, the secretariat launched a new pillar under its Momentum for Change initiative focused on Climate Neutral Now.
- Climate Neutral Now is aiming at encouraging and supporting all levels of society to take climate action to achieve a climate neutral world by mid-century, as enshrined in the Paris Agreement.
- Climate neutrality is a three step process, which requires individuals, companies and governments to:
- Measure their climate footprint;
- Reduce their emissions as much as possible;
- Offset what they cannot reduce with UN certified emission reductions.
Q. With reference to the Agreement at the UNFCCC Meeting in Paris in 2015, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2016)
- The Agreement was signed by all the member countries of the UN and it will go into effect in 2017.
- The Agreement aims to limit the greenhouse gas emissions so that the rise in average global temperature by the end of this century does not exceed 2 °C or even 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels.
- Developed countries acknowledged their historical responsibility in global warming and committed to donate $ 1000 billion a year from 2020 to help developing countries to cope with climate change.
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
- 1 and 3 only
- 2 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
Answer: b) 2 only
- The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
- The UNEP Secretariat
- The UNFCCC Secretariat
- The World Meteorological Organisation
- Prior to the summit, China and the United States have agreed on a timetable to limit emission of GHGs.
- US agreed to reduce by 2025 its emission of greenhouse gases by 26 per cent to 28 per cent below its 2005 level.
- China stated its intent to peak emissions of carbon dioxide in 2030, if not earlier (from 2030 it will start reducing its emissions).
- It also agreed to raise the share of non-fossil fuels to 20 per cent in the next 16 years.
- India’s per capita emissions are estimated at one-tenth of the United States and one-fourth of China.
- China – US deal imposed a fresh pressure on India to make a voluntary commitment.
- India announced its INDCs in the end of 2015.
- During Warsaw Summit 2013 (COP 19), countries agreed to publicly outline what actions they intend to take under a global agreement well before the Paris Summit 2015.
- These country commitments are known as Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs).
Inclusion of Adaptation, finance and transfer of technology
- Developed countries are of the view that only actions that help in reducing greenhouse gas emissions should be counted as ‘contributions’ in INDCs.
- Almost every developing country, including India, however, wants adaptation measures also to be counted.
- Developing countries also want efforts by developed ones on providing money or transferring technology to poorer nations to be included in INDCs.
- This will help in holding the rich countries (biggest culprits that contributed to the increase of GHG emissions since Industrial Revolution) accountable to their promises on ensuring financial and technology flows.
- India, European Union, China etc. are in favour of a 10-year commitment period.
- The United States, however, wants five-year commitment period so that countries can make quicker reviews.
- Since the INDCs are ‘nationally-determined’ and voluntary, the level of ambition in making ‘contributions’ is likely to be low.
- Some countries want an assessment of each country’s INDC to see whether these are in line with the global 2 degree target.
- India and the United States strongly resent any such provision, saying such an exercise will negate the ‘nationally-determined’ nature of the ‘contributions’.
Q. The term ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contributions’ is sometimes seen in the news in the context of
- pledges made by the European countries to rehabilitate refugees from the war-affected Middle East
- plan of action outlined by the countries of the world to combat climate change
- capital contributed by the member countries in the establishment of Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
- plan of action outlined by the countries of the world regarding Sustainable Development Goals
- Announced in October 2015 (Lima summit urged every country to announce its INDCs by Nov 2015)
- Reduce emission intensity by 33 to 35 per cent by 2030 compared to 2005 levels.
- Introduce new, more efficient and cleaner technologies in thermal power generation.
- Reducing emissions from transportation sector.
- Promote energy efficiency, mainly in industry, transportation, buildings and appliances
- Develop climate resilient infrastructure.
- Pursue Zero Effect, Zero Defect policy under Make in India programme.
- Produce 40 per cent of electricity from non-fossil fuel based energy resources by 2030, if international community helps with technology transfer and low cost finance.
- Install 175 GW of solar, wind and biomass electricity by 2022, and scale up further in following years.
- Aggressively pursue development of hydropower.
- Achieve the target of 63 GW of installed nuclear power capacity by 2032.
- Create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2030 through additional forest and tree cover.
- Full implementation of Green India Mission and other programmes of afforestation.
- Develop 1,40,000 km long tree line on both sides of national highways.
- Sustainable development.
- Develop robust adaptation strategies for agriculture, water and health sectors.
- Redesign National Water Mission and National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture.
- Active implementation of ongoing programmes like National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture, setting up of 100 mobile soil-testing laboratories, distribution of soil health cards to farmers.
- Additional impetus on watershed development through Neeranchal scheme.
- Effective implementation of National Mission on Clean Ganga.
- Early formulation and implementation of National Health Mission.
- Complete Integrated Coastal Zone Management plan. Mapping and demarcation of coastal hazard lines.
- At least USD 2.5 trillion required between 2015 and 2030 to implement all planned actions.
- Cess on coal is being used for funding clean energy projects through National Adaptation Fund.
- Tax free infrastructure bonds were introduced for funding renewable energy projects.
Tax free infrastructure bonds
- Budget 2015 introduced “National Adaptation Fund” for climate change.
- As an initial sum, an amount of Rs 100 crore will be transferred to the Fund.
- Budget provision for the year 2015-16 and 2016-17 is Rs.350 crores.
- Money obtained from coal cess goes into NAFCC.
- Objective: Assist States and Union Territories that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change in meeting the cost of adaptation.
- The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) has been appointed as National Implementing Entity (NIE) responsible for implementation of adaptation projects under the (NAFCC).
Marrakech (Morocco) Climate Change Conference 2016 (COP22; CMP12; CMA1)
- CMA1 the first meeting of the parties for the Paris Agreement.
- The purpose of the conference was to discuss and implement plans about combatting climate change and to “[demonstrate] to the world that the implementation of the Paris Agreement is underway”.
- COP22 was called as “Action COP” or “Agriculture COP”.
- Adaptation of African Agriculture (AAA) was launched at COP 22.
- AAA is promoted by FAO along with various governments, especially African countries.
International Solar Alliance
- The International Solar Alliance (ISA) is an alliance was initiated by India.
- It was initiated at the India Africa Summit, and a meeting of member countries ahead of the Paris Summit.
- The framework agreement opened for signatures in Marrakech in 2016, and 122 countries have joined.
- Most of the 122 countries are sunshine countries, which lie either completely or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
- ISA is now extended to all members of UN and is now a treaty-based inter-governmental organization.
- Countries that do not fall within the Tropics can join the alliance with the exception of voting rights.
- The primary objective of the alliance is to work for efficient exploitation of solar energy to reduce dependence on fossil fuels.
- Headquarters: Gurugram, Haryana, India.
Q. Consider the following statements: (2016)
- The International Solar Alliance was launched at the United Nations Climate Change Conference in 2015.
- The Alliance includes all the member countries of the United Nations.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
Answer: a) 1 only
Bonn (Germany) Climate Change Conference 2017 (COP 23; CMP 13; CMA 1-2)
- At COP 23 nations of the world met to advance the aims and ambitions of the Paris Agreement and achieve progress on its implementation guidelines.
- Parties will need to finalise the Implementation Guidelines at COP24.
Katowice (Poland) Climate Change Conference 2018 (COP 24; CMP 14; CMA 1-3)
- The conference agreed on rules to implement the Paris Agreement, which will come into force in 2020, that is to say the rulebook on how governments will measure, and report on their emissions-cutting efforts.
- In addition to the UN-REDD Programme, other initiatives assisting countries that are engaged in REDD+ include the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility, the Global Environment Facility, the Green Climate Fund etc.
Q3. Which of the following statements is/are correct?
Proper design and effective implementation of UN-REDD+ Programme can significantly contribute to
- protection of biodiversity
- resilience of forest ecosystems
- poverty reduction
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
- 1 and 2 only
- 3 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
- Poverty reduction is nowhere mentioned in the REDD+. But the question is not asking for specific details “UN-REDD+ Programme can significantly contribute to?”
- Conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries will certainly contribute to employment opportunities and help in poverty reduction.
- http://www.fao.org/redd/en/ also says the same “REDD+ can also contribute to achieving other SDGs – including those which address poverty reduction, health and well-being, hunger alleviation, and improving institutions”
Answer: a) 1, 2 and 3 (UPSC Official Key)
- It is a global partnership of governments, businesses, civil society, and Indigenous Peoples focused on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest carbon stock conservation, the sustainable management of forests, and the enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (activities commonly referred to as REDD+).
- The World Bank assumes the functions of trustee and secretariat.
- The World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank and United Nations Development Programme are Delivery Partners under the Readiness Fund and responsible for providing REDD+ readiness support.
- To assist countries in their REDD+ efforts by providing them with financial and technical assistance.
- To pilot a performance-based payment system for REDD+ activities.
- To test ways to sustain or enhance livelihoods of local communities and to conserve biodiversity.
- To disseminate broadly the knowledge gained in Emission Reductions Programs (ERPs).
Q. With reference to ‘Forest Carbon Partnership Facility’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
- It is global partnership of governments, businesses, civil society and indigenous peoples.
- It provides financial aid to universities, individual scientists and institutions involved in scientific forestry research to develop eco-friendly and climate adaptation technologies for sustainable forest management.
- It assists the countries in their ‘REDD+ (Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Forest Degradation+)’ efforts by providing them with financial and technical assistance.
Select the correct answer using the code given below
- 1 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
- It provides financial incentives to countries in their REDD+ efforts. There is no mention of assistance to universities, scientists…
Answer: c) 1 and 3 only
- 2012: a few nations, along with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), came together to form the Climate & Clean Air Coalition.
- It is a partnership of governments, public and private sector, scientific institutions, civil society organizations, etc. committed to protecting the climate through actions to reduce short-lived climate pollutants.
Short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs)
- SLCPs have relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere – a few days to a few decades.
- Though short-lived, their potential to warm the atmosphere can be many times greater than CO2.
- SLCPs are responsible for up to 45% of current global warming, only next to CO2.
- SLCPs include black carbon, methane, tropospheric ozone, and hydrofluorocarbons.
- It is a major component of soot and is produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuel and biomass.
- It is emitted from diesel cars and trucks, ships, residential stoves, forest fires, agricultural open burning, etc.
- Its Global Warming Potential is 460-1500 times stronger than CO2.
- Its lifetime varies from a few days to a few weeks.
- When deposited on ice and snow, black carbon causes an increase of melting rate.
- It also influences cloud formation and impacts regional circulation and rainfall patterns and also has negative effect on the photosynthesis.
- Methane is a greenhouse gas that is over 21 times more potent than CO2.
- It has an atmospheric lifetime of about 12 years.
- It is produced through the decomposition of plant and animal waste.
- It is also emitted from coal mines, natural gas and oil systems, and landfills.
- Methane is a precursor of tropospheric ozone.
Tropospheric or ground-level ozone (O3)
- Tropospheric ozone is present in the lowest portion of the atmosphere (10–15 km above the ground).
- It has a lifetime of a few days to a few weeks.
- It is not directly emitted but formed by sunlight-driven oxidation of methane, carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOX).
- Tropospheric ozone is responsible for reductions in crop yields.
- Though HFCs represent a small fraction of current greenhouse gas emissions, their potential to warm the atmosphere is hundreds to thousands of times greater than that of the same given mass of carbon dioxide.
Benefits of Reducing SLCPs
- Reducing methane and black carbon could prevent major crop losses.
- Reducing SLCPs could slow down the warming expected by 2050 by about 0.5 °C.
- SLCPs play an important role in achieving the 2° C target set by the Paris Agreement.
- The BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustainable Forest Landscapes (ISFL) is a multilateral fund, supported by donor governments and managed by the World Bank.
- It seeks to promote reduced greenhouse gas emissions from the land sector, from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+), and from sustainable agriculture, as well as smarter land-use planning, policies and practices.
Q. ‘BioCarbon Fund Initiative for Sustain-able Forest Landscapes’ is managed by the
- Asian Development Bank
- International Monetary Fund
- United Nations Environment Programme
- World Bank
- Answer: d) World Bank
- (GCCA+) is a European Union initiative.
- It helps vulnerable countries on the front line of climate change.
- GCCA+ initiatives help mainly Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs) increase their resilience to climate change.
- It also supports these group of countries in implementing their commitments resulting from the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change (COP21).
Q. With reference to ‘Global Climate Change Alliance’, which of the following statements is/are correct?
- It is an initiative of the European Union.
- It provides technical and financial support to targeted developing countries to integrate climate change into their development policies and budgets.
- It is coordinated by World Resources Institute (WRI) and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD).
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
- 1 and 2 only
- 3 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
Answer: a) 1 and 2 only
- Arctic Council is an intergovernmental forum promoting cooperation, coordination and interaction among the Arctic states, Arctic Indigenous communities and other Arctic inhabitants on common Arctic issues, in particular on issues of sustainable development and environmental protection in the Arctic.
- The Arctic Council consists of the eight Arctic States: Canada, the Kingdom of Denmark (including Greenland and the Faroe Islands), Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden and the United States.
Q. Consider the following countries:
- Russian Federation
- United Kingdom
- United States of America
Which of the above are the members of the ‘Arctic Council’?
- 1, 2 and 3
- 2, 3 and 4
- 1, 4 and 5
- 1, 3 and 5