PMF IAS Test Series for UPSC Prelims Banner Ad
PMF IAS Test Series for UPSC Prelims Banner Ad

Current Affairs for UPSC Civil Services Exam – June 14, 2024

{GS1 – A&C – Sites} Jyotirmath and Pargana Shri Kainchi Dham

  • Context (IE): The Centre approved the Uttarakhand government’s proposal for renaming the Joshimath tehsil in Chamoli district to Jyotirmath, and the Kosiyakutoli tehsil in Nainital district to Pargana Shri Kainchi Dham tehsil.

Jyotirmath

  • Jyotirmath (also known as Jyotir Peeth) is a small town located at a height of 1,890 mts (6150 feet).
    • Over time, the local population began referring to the area as “Joshimath, which was recorded in the government records by the Britishers.
    • Thus, while “Jyotirmath” was used in a more formal or religious context,Joshimath” became the more commonly used name.
  • It is one of the four cardinal mathas (monasteries) that 8th century philosopher Adi Shankaracharya is believed to have established across India to promote the Advaita Vedanta philosophy.
  • Jyotirmath was established to preserve and disseminate spiritual knowledge and practices. The name “Jyotirmath” comes from the divine light of knowledge he is said to have attained, with ‘jyoti’ meaning divine light.
  • It is also the home of the oldest tree of India, Amar Kalpavriksha, under which Adi Shankaracharya performed penance.

From Kosiyakutoli to Pargana Shri Kainchi Dham

  • In “Kosiyakutoli,Kosi” refers to the river that flows through the Nainital district and kutoli” is derived from the local language, referring to a village or settlement.
  • Kosiyakutoli came to be known for its association with Neem Karoli Baba and the Kainchi Dham Ashram he founded in 1962.
  • Neem Karori Baba is a renowned Hindu guru and saint with followers in India and abroad. He passed away in 1973. He is revered for his teachings on bhakti yoga and devotion to God.

Learn more about the process of renaming districts.

{GS1 – MIH – Revolts} Satnami Community & Satnami Revolt

  • Context (IE): The Satnami community in Chhattisgarh violently protested against the desecration of a Jaitkhamb (a structure of sacred importance).
  • Jaitkham is a structure revered by the Satnami community as a sacred symbol. Chattishgarh has the tallest Jatikham, located about 5 km from Giraud village in Baloda Bazar district, at the birthplace of Guru Ghasidas.

Guru Ghasidas Jaitkham

Guru Ghasidas Jaitkham

Credit: Wikipedia

  • The Satnami community was founded in 1657 by Birbhan in Narnaul (present-day Haryana).
  • The expression sat naam (literally “true name”) was popularised by the 15th century Bhakti poet Kabir.
  • The sect is thought to be an offshoot of the Ravidassia sect, as Udhodas, the guru of Birbhan, was the disciple of Saint Ravidas. Udhodas was the society’s first priest or spiritual guru.
  • The Satnamis trace their theological lineage to Guru Ghasidas, an 18th century saint.
  • The sect emphasises on three principles:
    1. Adorn the attire of a Satnami devotee.
    2. Earn money through proper means.
    3. Do not tolerate any injustice or oppression in any form.
  • The sect emphasizes social equality and rejects caste-based discrimination.
  • Remnants of earliest satnamis contributed to the formation of another sect, known as Sadhs (i.e., sadhu, “good”), in the early 19th century, who also designated their deity as satnam.
  • Ravidassia is a tradition based on the teachings of Guru Ravidass. It is a religious sect of the Sikhism, founded in the 14th century. A member of the Ravidassia sect is called a “Ravidassia.

Revival of Satnamis

  • The Satnami community revived in the mid-eighteenth century in present-day Uttar Pradesh under the leadership of Jagjivandas of Barabanki district. He was said to have been influenced by a disciple of the Sufi mystic Yari Shah (1668–1725).
    • He projected an image of an overarching creator God as nirguna (“devoid of sensible qualities”), best worshipped through a regimen of self-discipline and by use of the “true name” alone.
  • The most important Satnami group was founded in 1820 in the Chhattisgarh region by Ghasidas.
    • His Satnam Panth (“Path of the True Name”) succeeded in providing a religious and social identity for large numbers of Chhattisgarhi Chamars.
  • Saguna is worship of God with form and nirguna is worship of God without form.

Satnamis in present day

  • Initially, most Satnamis belonged to an “untouchable” caste engaged in leatherwork. The community has, however, moved away from the profession over time. Today, the community comprises farmers, artisans and people from backward castes.
  • Over the years, many Satnamis adopted caste-Hindu practices, beliefs and rituals, and came to see themselves as part of the Hindu religious mainstream. Some started to worship idols of Hindu Gods, and claimed to be of Rajput or even Brahmin lineage.
  • Satnamis are a predominant group within the 11% Scheduled Caste population in Chhattisgarh. The community inhabits the plains of the state’s central region, mostly the old districts of Bilaspur, Durg, Rajnandgaon and Raipur.

Satnami Revolt

  • It occurred in 1672 during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in Narnaul (present-day Haryana).
  • Reasons:
    • Revival of Islamic Jiziya tax (poll tax on non-Muslim subjects),
    • Banning music and art, and
    • Destroying Hindu temples.
  • The immediate cause of the revolt was the mistreatment of a Satnami by a Mughal official, which sparked widespread anger among the Satnamis.
  • The Satnami rebels initially achieved some military successes against Mughal forces, but they were eventually defeated by a larger Mughal army.

{GS2 – IR – Groupings} Group of Seven (G7) Summit 2024

  • Context (IE): India is participating as an Outreach Country in the G7 Leaders’ Summit in Italy.

Origin of G7

  • The G7 originated from a 1973 meeting of finance ministers and central bank governors in Paris, France.
  • This meeting was convened in response to major economic challenges at the time — an oil crisis, rising inflation, and the collapse of the Bretton Woods system.
  • In the Bretton Woods system, the value of the US dollar was fixed against gold. It required countries to guarantee the convertibility of their currencies into U.S. dollars to within 1% of fixed parity rates.
  • Subsequently, the idea evolved as a forum where major industrialised democracies could coordinate economic policies to address common challenges.

For details on membership, refer > G7.

Evolution and relevance

  • G7 has evolved from an economic forum to a platform that aims to address a range of global challenges.
  • While it lacks a permanent administrative structure, the G7 rotates its presidency annually, and the presidency serves as a temporary secretariat.
  • Its relevance has been questioned as the combined share of its members in global GDP has fallen.
    • According to the think tank Bruegel, the G7’s share of global GDP has declined from roughly 50% in the 1970s to around 30% in 2018.
  • Experts argue a reconfigured G7+, which would include a common euro-zone representative and make space for China, India, and Brazil.
  • It is questioned due to the inability to achieve consensus on issues like climate change.
  • However, G7 has been instrumental in coordinating economic policies, promoting free & fair trade practices, shaping global governance issues, and supporting security cooperation & development assistance.

Agenda of G7 summit 2024

  • It includes defending the “rules-based international system”. Key priorities include migration, climate change, food security, and the implications of artificial intelligence (AI) for humanity.
  • It aims to coordinate economic policies to stabilise the global economy amidst concerns over inflation and trade tensions.
  • Summit will focus on addressing climate change by discussing strategies to reduce carbon emissions and promote sustainable energy sources.
  • In the context of COVID-19, G7 will prioritise global health initiatives, including pandemic preparedness and vaccine distribution.
  • Additionally, the summit will address geopolitical tensions, including relations with China and Russia, and ongoing conflicts with global implications.

{GS2 – Polity – IC} Coalition Government

  • Context (IE): The coalition union government has been formed after the 2024 Lok Sabha elections.

What is a Coalition Government?

  • A coalition government is formed when multiple political parties or individuals join forces to achieve a majority needed to govern, often due to a single party not obtaining the required majority.
  • Coalitions can be pre-poll or post-election, where member parties adopt a common program to ensure majority control of the parliament or legislative assembly and implement shared policies.
  • At the Union level, there have been instances of coalition governments since 1977. Regionalism and the rise of regional parties have been one of the major factors leading to coalition governments in India.

Implications of Coalition Governments

Impact on Economy
  • Economic Policy Influence: Coalition governments reflect diverse viewpoints of regional parties, making consensus-building challenging and affecting policy decisions.
Impact on Centre-State Relations
  • Regional parties in national coalitions push for their interests, influencing federal dynamics and sometimes leading to cooperative or competitive federalism.
  • Regional parties may advance specific regional demands, impacting the broader federal balance.
Impact on Policies and Political Stability
  • It may result in more inclusive policies, though achieving consensus can be difficult.
  • Coalition governments face policy instability due to diverse party interests and internal bargaining, risking collapse if partners do not agree.
Impact on Foreign Policy
  • Coalition governments may change foreign policy priorities but generally maintain core principles like non-alignment and strategic autonomy.
  • Consensus Building: Requires agreement among coalition partners, leading to a balanced but potentially delayed decision-making process. E.g. the opposition of the left parties led to delays and modifications in the Indo-US nuclear deal.
  • Ideological Differences: Partners’ differing stances can affect the overall foreign policy approach, such as prioritising ties with different countries.
  • Regional parties can shape foreign policy, especially with neighbouring countries. E.g. Tamil Nadu’s influence on policy towards Sri Lanka.

Hung Parliament

  • A hung parliament is a situation in a parliamentary system where no single political party or pre-existing coalition has an absolute majority of seats in the parliament.
  • Thus, legislation cannot be passed without support from other parties or independent members.
  • If the government loses a confidence vote, it may lead to frequent elections.
  • The President of India plays a crucial role in inviting the leader of the party or coalition that is most likely to command a majority in the Lok Sabha to form the government.

{GS2 – Polity – IC} President Rejects Mercy Petition of Red Fort Attack Convict

  • Context (IE): The President has rejected the mercy petition of a Lashkar-e-Taiba member who was sentenced to death for his role in the December 2000 Red Fort attack, which killed three Army personnel.
  • Earlier, SC dismissed the review petition and noted that there were no mitigating circumstances in his favour and that the attack posed a direct threat to the country’s unity, integrity, and sovereignty.
  • If a convict is awarded a death sentence, he has three options: a review petition, a curative petition before the Supreme Court, and, finally, a mercy petition before the President.

Pardoning Power of the President and the Governor

  • According to Article 72 of the Indian Constitution, the President can grant pardons, reprieves, respites, or remissions of punishment, or suspend, remit, or commute sentences in cases where:
    • The punishment or sentence is for an offence against a Union Law.
    • The punishment or sentence is by a court-martial (military court).
    • The sentence is a death sentence.
  • Article 161 grants state Governors the power to pardon, reprieve, respite, remit, or commute sentences for offences against state law. The Governor does not have the power to pardon sentences by court-martial or in cases where the death penalty is given.
  • The scope of the President’s pardoning power is broader than the governor’s pardoning power.

Learn in detail about the Pardoning Powers of the President.

Review Petition

  • Article 137 of the Constitution empowers the Supreme Court to review its judgments or orders.
  • It is a legal mechanism available to a litigant who is not satisfied with a judgement made by the court.
  • Under the Civil Procedure Code and SC Rules, any aggrieved person, not just parties to the case, can seek a review, and the petition must be filed within 30 days of the judgment or order.
  • The court exercises its discretion to allow a review petition only when it shows valid grounds.
  • Grounds for Seeking a Review:
    • The Supreme Court has laid down three grounds for seeking a review:
      • Discovery of new and important matter or evidence
      • Mistake or error apparent on the face of the record
      • Any other sufficient reason analogous to the other two grounds
    • The mere possibility of two views on the subject cannot be a ground for review.
  • The notable instances of it include the Sabarimala case, the Rafale deal, and the SC/ST Atrocities Act.

{GS3 – Envi – CC} Decline in Ozone-Depleting HCFCs

  • Context (DTE): A recent study published in Nature Climate Change reports a significant decrease in atmospheric concentrations of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs).
  • HCFCs are potent ozone-depleting substances, and the decline was achieved five years earlier than targeted, attributed to the successful implementation of control measures.
  • The decline has a positive impact on mitigating climate change, as HCFCs are potent greenhouse gases.
  • HCFC-22 (the most abundant HCFC), with a high global warming potential (1,910 times that of CO2), has seen the most significant decline and notably reduced the radiative forcing.
  • The study also found that the amount of chlorine from HCFCs in the atmosphere, known as equivalent effective chlorine (EECl), has dropped since 2021. The decline was most rapid in the northern hemisphere, including India, which is phasing out HCFCs in new equipment manufacturing.
  • The research credits the Montreal Protocol and its amendments for the successful reduction in HCFC emissions and endorses multilateral commitments to combat ozone depletion and climate change.
  • The study projects HCFCs will return to 1980 levels by 2082 for radiative forcing and 2087 for EECl.
  • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which have largely replaced HCFCs, are now also facing restrictions under the 2016 Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol.

{GS3 – Envi – Species} Camelids as Allies Against Desertification

  • The DG mentioned Bactrian camels, dromedaries, alpacas, guanacos, llamas, and vicuñas as ‘true heroes of resilience’ for their role in supporting millions of people in harsh environments. Their ability to thrive in extreme climates makes them a valuable source of food, fertiliser, and transport.
  • The UN has designated 2024 as the International Year of Camelids.
  • Saudi Arabia has been a main supporter of the UN campaign and will host the 16th Conference of the Parties to the UN Convention on Combating Desertification in Riyadh.

Camelids

  • Camelids are a group of animals that belong to the biological family Camelidae.
  • There are currently seven existing species within this family, which are divided into two main categories: Old World Camelids and New World Camelids.
Camelids Features

Old World Camelids

Dromedary Camel (Camelus

dromedarius)

  • Also known as the single hump camel or Arabian camel, primarily found in the hot, arid deserts of Africa, Asia and Australia.
Bactrian Camel (Camelus

bactrianus)

  • Referred to as the double hump camel or Mongolian camel, it inhabits the cold desert regions of Mongolia, China, Kazakhstan, Iran, and Afghanistan.
  • In India, double-hump camels are found in the Nubra Valley of Ladakh.
  • Wild Bactrian Camel are species separated from Bacteria camel.

New World Camelids

Llama (Lama glama)
  • Llamas are domesticated animals native to the Andes mountains of South America, typically found at high altitudes.
  • Commercial Llama farms have been established in the United States, Canada, England, New Zealand, and Australia.
Alpaca (Vicugna pacos)
  • Alpacas are another domesticated species originating from the Andes.
  • They are valued for their fleece.
Guanaco (Lama guanicoe)
  • Guanacos (wild member) inhabit the Andes mountains at lower elevations as well as lower plateaus, plains, and coastlines of Peru, Chile, and Argentina.
  • They were once overhunted for their thick, warm wool.
Vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)
  • It is also a wild member found in high elevations of the Andes mountains.

Importance for India

  • India is home to a rich diversity of camel genetic resources, with nine breeds officially registered by the ICAR-National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (ICAR-NBAGR).
  • Camels are an integral part of the Thar Desert in Rajasthan and the Kachchh region of Gujarat. Several communities, like Raika/Rabari, Fakirani Jats, and Hajiyani Jats, rely heavily on camels for their livelihood.
  • Economic Benefits of Camels:
    • Transportation: Goods and people via camel carts.
    • Agriculture: Support for small and marginal farmers.
    • Tourism: Camel safaris, rides, races, shows, etc.
  • The Border Security Force (BSF) uses camels, primarily the Jaisalmer breed, for patrolling the Indo-Pak border adjoining Rajasthan and Gujarat. It introduced the world’s first women camel riding squad.

{Prelims – Awards} Kavli Prize 2024

  • Context (IE): The winners of the 2024 Kavli Prize were announced recently.

About the Kavli Prize

  • It is awarded in honour of Norwegian-American businessman, engineer and philanthropist Fred Kavli.
  • Introduced in 2008 to support wide-ranging research to improve the quality of life for people worldwide.
  • Awarded by the US-based Kavli Foundation, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. Handed out by the Norwegian Royal family.
  • The prize comprises a $1 million cash prize (per field), a scroll, and a medal.
  • Kavli Prize was designed to be like the Nobel in the fields of astrophysics, neuroscience, and nanoscience.
  • As per the will of Alfred Nobel, the Nobel Prize is only awarded for achievements made “during the preceding year”. However, the Kavli Prize does not operate under such a restriction.

Winners in 2024

Astrophysics

  • David Charbonneau of Harvard University and Sara Seager of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for discoveries of exoplanets and the characterisation of their atmosphere.
  • They devised methods for the detection of atomic species in planetary atmospheres and the measurement of their thermal infrared emission.

Neuroscience

  • Robert Langer of MIT, Armand Paul Alivisatos of the University of Chicago, and Chad Mirkin of Northwestern University for his idea of nano-engineering, a material for the controlled release of therapeutic biomolecules, could help develop controlled drug delivery.
  • Alivisatos devised semiconductor crystals, or “quantum dots,” that could be used as multi-colour fluorescent probes in bioimaging.
  • Mirkin introduced the concept of spherical nucleic acid (SNA), a new class of nucleic acids that are densely functionalised and oriented spherically around a nanoparticle core.
  • SNAs have wide-ranging use in areas like intracellular detection, gene regulation & immunotherapy.

Nanoscience

  • Nancy Kanwisher of MIT, Winrich Freiwald of Rockefeller University, and Doris Tsao of the University of California at Berkeley for their collective effort to map the linkage between facial recognition & brain.
  • Kinwisher identified the exact brain centre for face processing.
  • Tsao & Freiwald advanced this knowledge by using functional imaging and recording from individual brain cells to map out the neural architecture of the human brain.
  • Kavli Prize is differnt than Kavli Medal. Kavli Medal and Lecture is now awarded annually for excellence in all fields of science and engineering relevant to the environment.

{Prelims – Sci – Bio – Diseases} Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Diagnostic Test

  • Context (TH): Sysmex Astrego wins Longitude Prize for Transformative UTI Diagnostic Test.

PA-100 AST System

  • It is a high-tech, rapid, point-of-care test for diagnosing Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs).
  • It is set to revolutionise infection management and combat antimicrobial resistance.
  • The test identifies a UTI and determines the most effective antibiotic for a specific infection, helping to combat antibiotic overuse and resistance.
  • It is a user-friendly, cartridge-based system that can be used in doctor’s offices, eliminating the need to send samples to a lab and provide results within 45 minutes.

Current UTI Diagnostic Methods

  • Urine dipstick tests provide quick results (50-60% accuracy), and the right antibiotic cannot be chosen.
  • Laboratory culture tests take 2-3 days, leading doctors to prescribe antibiotics empirically, contributing to the antibiotic resistance crisis.

Longitude Prize

  • In 1714, the British announced this prize to solve the problem of determining a ship’s position at sea.
  • In 2014, a second Longitude Prize was launched, with the public voting for anti-microbial resistance as the major challenge that needed an immediate solution.
  • The £10 million prize aims to incentivise the creation of new diagnostic tests that can quickly identify bacterial infections and the right antibiotic to prescribe.

{Prelims – Envi – Species} Baobab tree (Adansonia digitata) in India *

  • Context (DTE): Baobabs are found in India, from semi-arid central areas to wetter Western Ghats.

    Baobab tress - PMF IAS

    Credits: The Hans India

  • Adansonia digitata is native to Africa and belongs to the Malvaceae family. There are eight species of Adansonia worldwide, found in Africa, Asia and Australia.
  • Baobab trees in India were introduced by African migrants and Arab and Portuguese traders.
  • Locals in Mandu (MP) believe the baobab seeds were brought by Afghan rulers of the Ghuri Dynasty during the reign of Hoshang Shah of Malwa.
  • The tree commemorates the French botanist Michel Adanson, who studied Senegal’s natural history, with ‘digitata‘ referring to the hand-shaped leaves.
  • Baobab” is derived from the Arabicbu hibab,” which means “fruit with several seeds.”
  • The tree is also known by other names, such as
    • dead-rat tree’ (due to its fruit’s resemblance to dead rats),
    • monkey-bread tree’ (since monkeys eat its dry fruit),
    • upside-down tree’ (because its bare branches resemble roots),
    • cream of tartar tree’ (due to the acidic taste of its fruit).
  • In Hindi, it is referred to as gorakh-imli or gorak-chinch. It is also revered as the “Tree of Life” and “Mother of the Forest,” symbolising resilience and cultural richness.
  • Multi-purpose tree: Food, clothing, medicine, ornamental purposes and raw materials. The Bhil community in MP preserves these trees and makes a living by collecting and selling various baobab products.
  • Superfruits: Cucumber-shaped fruits and leaves are high in nutrients. Its nutritional profile includes protein, fat, carbohydrates, fibre, calcium, magnesium, Vitamin C, and potassium.
  • Heritage tree: Cultural and religious significance, like the heritage baobab tree in Goa.
  • Physical properties include
    • Appearance: Deciduous trees grow up to 20-30 m with a trunk diameter of 2-10 m, smooth, reddish-brown to grey bark with longitudinal fibres.
    • Water storing trunks: Distinctive swollen, bottle-shaped trunk that stores water for dry seasons.
    • Soil: Well-drained, acidic soils.
    • Blooming: Both wet and dry seasons in Southern Africa from October to December, with fruits appearing from April to May. In India, they flower from May to June, aligning with the rainy season.
    • Unique properties: Resist fire, termites & drought. Extensive roots.
  • According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the largest known living baobab tree is around 800 years old and is in Sagole, South Africa, near the Zimbabwe border.
  • The largest baobab tree outside Africa in India is located at Golconda Fort. It is over 400 years old and is known locally as hatiyan jhad (elephant tree).

To know more about the origin of Baobabs, visit > Baobabs.

{Prelims – Envi – Species} Seabirds

  • Context (DTE): Cyclone Ilsa (category 5 cyclone) that crossed Bedout Island recently wiped out 80-90 percent of the island’s seabird (Masked bobby, brown bobby and lesser frigatebird) population.
  • Bedout Island is located in the Timor Sea off the remote north coast.

Bedout Island - PMF IAS

Credit: Inside Climate News

Categories of Cyclone

Categories of Tropical Cyclones - destruction

Seabirds

  • Seabirds are bird species adapted to live and feed in the saltwater environment of the ocean.
  • They contribute to the health of islands and the reefs that surround them.
  • They connect the marine and terrestrial ecosystems by transporting marine-derived nutrients to terrestrial breeding, roosting, and nesting areas via guano deposition and other means.

Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra bedouti)

A bird standing on a rock Description automatically generated

Credit: NZ Birds

  • The masked booby is a large, white gannet-like seabird with black trailing edges to the wings, a black tail and yellow bill.
  • They range widely over tropical and subtropical open ocean.
  • IUCN Status: Least Concern

Brown Booby (S leucogaster)

A bird standing on sand Description automatically generated

Credit: NZ Birds

  • The brown booby is a large, chocolate-brown-and-white seabird.
  • Distribution: Tropical seas of the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, plus the Caribbean Sea.
  • IUCN Status: Least Concern

Lesser Frigatebird (Fregata ariel)

A bird flying in the sky Description automatically generated

Credit: NZ Birds

  • Lesser frigatebirds are large, predominantly black birds with long narrow wings, a deeply forked tail and a long hooked bill.
  • Distribution: They are found throughout the Indian Ocean, the western and central Pacific Ocean, and off Brazil in the Atlantic Ocean.
  • IUCN Status: Least Concern

{Prelims – Sci – Bio – Diseaese} Rift Valley Fever (RVF)

  • Context (DTE): A recent study has revealed that the geographical range of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) disease clusters is expanding across eastern Africa.
  • The increasing frequency of small RVF clusters in previously unaffected areas is associated with a combination of higher temperature and rainfall.

Rift Valley Fever - PMF IAS

Credit: Jenner Institute

  • Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the Rift Valley fever virus, which is found in most of sub-Saharan Africa, especially eastern and southern Africa.
  • It was first identified in 1931 in the Rift Valley in Kenya.
  • It is transmitted by mosquitoes, most commonly the Aedes and Culex mosquitoes.
  • It is primarily a disease of ruminants such as sheep, goats and cattle but human infections occur following close contact with infected animal tissue and body fluids.
  • Symptoms: People with RVF often have either no symptoms or a mild illness that includes fever, weakness, back pain, and dizziness.
  • It produces high mortality rates in newborn ruminants, especially sheep and goats, and abortion in pregnant animals.
  • RVF is listed in the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and must be reported to the WOAH.

{Prelims – Sci – Bio – Diseases} Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Diagnostic Test

  • Context (TH): Sysmex Astrego wins Longitude Prize for Transformative UTI Diagnostic Test.

PA-100 AST System

  • It is a high-tech, rapid, point-of-care test for diagnosing Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs).
  • It is set to revolutionise infection management and combat antimicrobial resistance.
  • The test identifies a UTI and determines the most effective antibiotic for a specific infection, helping to combat antibiotic overuse and resistance.
  • It is a user-friendly, cartridge-based system that can be used in doctor’s offices, eliminating the need to send samples to a lab and provide results within 45 minutes.

Current UTI Diagnostic Methods

  • Urine dipstick tests provide quick results (50-60% accuracy), and the right antibiotic cannot be chosen.
  • Laboratory culture tests take 2-3 days, leading doctors to prescribe antibiotics empirically, contributing to the antibiotic resistance crisis.

Longitude Prize

  • In 1714, the British announced this prize to solve the problem of determining a ship’s position at sea.
  • In 2014, a second Longitude Prize was launched, with the public voting for anti-microbial resistance as the major challenge that needed an immediate solution.
  • The £10 million prize aims to incentivise the creation of new diagnostic tests that can quickly identify bacterial infections and the right antibiotic to prescribe.
  • AMR killed nearly 1.3 million people globally in 2019 and could cause 10 million deaths a year by 2050.
Sharing is Caring !!

Newsletter Updates

Subscribe to our newsletter and never miss an important update!

Assured Discounts on our New Products!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Newsletter

Never miss an important update!