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V-SAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) Stations

  • Context (TH): The Ministry of Tribal Affairs is partnering with ISRO for a pilot project, deploying V-SAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) stations in approximately 80 tribal villages across Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, and Maharashtra.
  • This initiative aims to provide internet services to these tribal areas.

V-SAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) stations

  • It is a two-way satellite ground station enabling communication for voice, data, and video signals.
  • VSATs handle both narrowband data and broadband data.
    • Narrowband data: Credit card transactions, polling, RFID data, or SCADA
    • Broadband data: Satellite Internet access, VoIP, or video.
  • They find use in providing connectivity to remote locations, supporting transportable or on-the-move communications and enabling mobile maritime communication.

How does VSAT work?

  • VSAT operates with a transceiver and an indoor device.
  • A user’s computer connects to an outdoor antenna via a indoor device (box).
  • The transceiver in the antenna sends and receives signals to and from a satellite transponder through a hub station on Earth.
  • All transmissions pass through the hub station before being retransmitted via the satellite to reach the end user’s VSAT.

V-SAT (very small aperture terminal) stations


  • VSAT is cost-effective, lightweight, and operates with low transmission power.
  • It utilizes satellite signals, eliminating the need for physical links like Ethernet cables, reducing structural risks.
  • VSAT serves as a backup for wired networks during failures and functions independently for local telecommunication networks.
  • It can be easily installed in remote locations with minimal infrastructure needs, redirecting satellite signals through a central hub to various locations.


  • VSATs suffer from latency due to the time delay in signals traveling between space and the ground, especially noticeable in two-way communication.
  • Weather conditions and obstructions like buildings or trees can cause signal distortion between the satellite and earth station.

Other steps taken for the development of Tribal communities

  • The Ministry of Tribal Affairs is partnering with AIIMS Delhi for advanced research on Sickle Cell Anemia.
  • Additionally, plans involve organizing training programs for medical staff in tribal areas and establishing a Bhagwan Birsa Munda Chair of Tribal Health and Haematology at AIIMS.
  • There are proposals for a specialized department on Appropriate Technology and Entrepreneurship with IIT Delhi and IIM Kolkata, and collaboration with the Indian Institute of Science in Bengaluru for semiconductor courses for tribal students
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