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  • Context (DTE): The importance of Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities (IPLCs) in conservation and the need to share benefits from biodiversity with them has been earmarked repeatedly.
  • Indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLCs) refer to distinct groups of people with deep historical connections to specific territories or regions.
  • These groups possess distinct cultural, social, economic, and political systems intricately linked to their ancestral lands.

Importance of IPLCs in Conservation

  • They deeply understand the local ecosystems and the intricate web of life that supports them.
  • They possess a wealth of traditional knowledge about sustainable resource management, passed down through generations.
  • They act as natural guardians of biodiversity by protecting against deforestation, poaching, etc.

Challenges in the Engagement of IPLCs in Conservation

  • Historical marginalisation and distrust: IPLCs, marginalised and dispossessed by governments and conservation groups, harbour deep distrust of outsiders.
  • Top-down conservation approaches: In this approach, governments and organisations set the agenda and tell IPLCs what to do. This disempowers IPLCs, fostering resentment and resistance.
  • Lack of recognition of IPLCs’ rights and knowledge
  • Lack of funding and resources
  • Language barriers

Recognition of the Role of IPLC

  • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD): It mandates that each country respects, preserves, and maintains the knowledge, innovations and practices of IPLCs.
  • Languages of IPLCs: A Working Group of CBD has emphasised the need to safeguard the languages of IPLCs for the intergenerational transmission of traditional knowledge, innovations, and practices.
  • Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (KMGBF): KMGBF aims to safeguard biodiversity, promote sustainable use, and ensure equitable sharing of benefits with IPLC.
  • Global Biodiversity Framework Fund (GBFF): Global Environment Facility (GEF) allocates up to 20% of the new GBFF funds for IPLCs.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD),1992

  • CBD, 1992 is a multilateral treaty adopted at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit.
  • The treaty that entered into effect in 1993 is legally binding.
  • 195 UN states and the European Union are parties to the convention; India is a party to it.
  • The Convention has three main goals:
    1. Conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity)
    2. Sustainable use of its components
    3. Fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources
  • Under CBD, two protocols have been adopted:
    1. Cartagena Protocol on biosafety (2003)
    2. Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit sharing (2014)

Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (KMGBF)

  • KMGBF was adopted in the 15th COP to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
  • It set goals and targets for protecting biodiversity and halting its loss.
  • The framework, which is not legally binding, sets out 4 goals for 2050 and 23 targets for 2030.

Global Biodiversity Framework Fund (GBFF)

  • GBFF is the world’s new biodiversity framework fund.
  • GBFF was established at the 7th Assembly of the Global Environment Facility (GEF).
  • It will help countries achieve targets set under the KMGBF.

Global Environment Facility (GEF)

  • The GEF was established on the eve of the 1992 Rio Earth Summit.
  • It is a family of funds dedicated to confronting biodiversity loss, climate change, pollution, and land and ocean health strains.
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