Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI)

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  • Context (IE | PIB | TH): India has successfully hosted the annual Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI) Summit for 2023 at the Bharat Mandapam in New Delhi.
  • The first three GPAI summits were held in Montreal, Paris, and Tokyo.

Global Partnership on Artificial Intelligence (GPAI)

  • GPAI is a multi-stakeholder initiative bridging the gap between AI theory and practice through research and applied activities on AI priorities.
  • It will bring experts from industry, civil society, governments, and academia to promote the responsible evolution of AI.
  • It is built around a shared commitment to the OECD Recommendation on AI.
  • Initially, it will work on four themes:
    1. Responsible AI
    2. Data Governance
    3. Future of Work
    4. Innovation and Commercialisation
  • Its founding members are Australia, Canada, the European Union, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Slovenia, the UK and the US.
  • Launched in 2020 with 15 members, GPAI’s membership now includes 28 countries and the EU.
  • India became the Council Chair of the GPAI in November 2022 after France.
  • China, a major tech superpower, is not part of the multilateral grouping.

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

  • OECD is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries.
  • It was founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
  • India is one of the many non-member economies with which the OECD has working relationships.

New Delhi Declaration

  • In the 2023 summit. GPAI unanimously adopted the New Delhi Declaration, emphasising:
    1. Risk mitigation in AI development
    2. Equitable resource access for AI innovation
  • The declaration acknowledges AI’s rapid advancement and recognises its potential for economic growth, innovation, job creation, and societal benefits.
  • The declaration also flagged concerns about AI systems, including misinformation and bias, unemployment, intellectual property and personal data protection, threats to human rights and democratic values, deepfakes, cybersecurity, and cyber-terrorism.
  • It also agreed to support AI innovation in agriculture as a new “thematic priority”.
  • It said that GPAI will aim for diverse membership, prioritising low and middle-income countries.

How does the New Delhi Declaration contrast with the Bletchley Declaration?

  • The world’s first AI Safety Summit was held at Bletchley Park in the UK in 2023.
  • At the summit, the Bletchley Park Declaration was signed to minimise risks from ‘frontier AI.
  • Thus, the centre of the Bletchley Declaration was security and safety risks related to AI.
  • In contrast, the New Delhi Declaration found a middle path between promoting and regulating AI.
  • It addresses AI risks but strongly supports innovation in various sectors like agriculture and healthcare.

Frontier AI

  • Frontier AIs are advanced foundation AI models that can pose severe risks to public safety.
  • Foundation models are trained on diverse unlabeled data, enabling versatile use with minimal fine-tuning for various tasks.
  • They will replace the task-specific models that now dominate the AI landscape.

Change in India’s Position in AI Regulation

  • India shifted from its view of no AI legal intervention to actively formulating regulations based on arisk-based, user-harm” approach.
  • Though the Ministry of Electronics and IT (MeitY) acknowledged AI’s ethical and associated risks, it did not consider any law to regulate the AI sector.
  • However, after deepfakes of popular personalities gained traction (e.g., actress Rashmika Mandana’s video), MeitY is considering concrete legislative steps to address AI-based misinformation.
  • At the GPAI Summit, PM flagged AI’s dual potential as a development as well as a destructive tool.
  • He called for a global framework to provide guardrails and ensure its responsible use.

How does the New Delhi Declaration Favour India’s Aspiration for Sovereign AI?

  • The declaration supports India’s intention, as Lead Chair for 2024, to endorse efforts to foster collaborative AI for global partnership among GPAI members.
  • This is a significant win for India, which has advocated a collaborative approach to building AI systems to push its Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI) model worldwide.
  • Besides, access to member nations’ computing capabilities will also boost India’s plans to build a sovereign AI system.

Digital Public Infrastructure (DPI)

  • DPI is a critical digital economy component that enables countries to provide essential services to foster economic growth and social inclusion.
  • E.g., biometric identity programme Aadhaar and payments solution Unified Payments Interface (UPI).

India’s DPI Approach

  • The government sanctions the underlying technology of components of DPI.
  • Then, later, it is offered to private entities to develop various use cases.
  • India wants to take the same DPI approach for developing its sovereign AI.
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