PMF IAS Current Affairs
PMF IAS Current Affairs
  • Context (PIB): The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) has recently released recommendations regarding the usage of Embedded SIM (eSIM) for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications.
  • The Department of Telecommunications (DoT) sought TRAI’s recommendations on the usage of eSIM for M2M communications in 2021.

What is Embedded SIM (eSIM)?

  • An eSIM is specifically designed for IoT sensors, meters, trackers, and devices that often operate with minimal human interaction on-site.
  • These SIMs are embedded (integrated/soldered) during manufacturing to meet standard physical and environmental requirements.
  • They can be deployed in both domestic and international markets.

Advantages of eSIM (Embedded SIM) over Traditional SIM cards

why eSIM

What is Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication?

  • Machine-to-machine (M2M) communication refers to the exchange of data between devices without human intervention.
  • In this, devices interact directly with each other, seamlessly sharing information and performing actions based on the received data.
  • M2M communication involves entities such as sensors, machines, vehicles, or measuring equipment that operate independently.

Key Features

  • Low Mobility: M2M devices are stationary, move infrequently, or operate within specific regions.
  • Time Controlled: Data transmission occurs at predefined intervals.
  • Time Tolerant: Data transfer can be delayed.
  • Packet Switched: Network operators provide packet-switched services.
  • Online Small Data Transmissions: MTC devices frequently send or receive small amounts of data.
  • Monitoring: Detecting events (e.g., theft or vandalism).
  • Low Power Consumption: Efficiently servicing M2M applications.
  • Location-Specific Triggers: Triggering M2M devices in specific areas.


  • Security: Surveillance systems, alarm systems, access control, and car/driver security.
  • Tracking & Tracing: Fleet management, order management, asset tracking, navigation, and traffic optimization.
  • Payment: Point-of-sale systems, vending machines, and gaming machines.
  • Health: Monitoring vital signs, supporting the aged or handicapped, telemedicine points, and remote diagnostics.
  • Remote Maintenance/Control: This includes controlling sensors, lighting, pumps, valves, elevators, vending machines, and vehicle diagnostics.
  • Metering: Monitoring power, gas, water, heating, and industrial metering.
  • Manufacturing: Production chain monitoring and automation.
  • Facility Management: Automation in homes, buildings, and campuses.

How does M2M communication differ from IoT?

M2M Internet of Things (IoT)
M2M is about direct communication between machines. IoT is about sensors automation and internet platform.
It supports point-to-point communication. It supports cloud communication
Devices do not necessarily rely on internet connection Devices rely on an internet connection.
It is mostly hardware-based technology Both hardware and software-based technology.
Machines normally communicate with a single machine at a time Many users can access at one time over the internet.
A device can be connected through mobile or another network. Data delivery depends on the Internet Protocol (IP) network.
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