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Black Sea, Red Sea & Panama Canal

Table of contents
  • Context (DTE): The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) expressed concern over increasing disruptions in global trade caused by the impact of climate change and war on shipping in three key sea lanes: The Black Sea, the Red Sea and the Panama Canal.

Black Sea

Black sea

  • Countries surrounding Black Sea: Ukraine to the north, Russia to the northeast, Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, Bulgaria to the southwest, and Romania to the west.
  • Issue: The Russia-Ukraine war has disrupted the trade stability in the region.

Red Sea

  • Surrounding Countries: Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Sudan, Eritrea and Djibouti.
  • Mediterranean Sea -> Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Aqaba, Gulf of Suez -> Suez Canal -> Red Sea -> Bab el Mandeb Strait and the Gulf of Aden -> Indian Ocean
  • Issue: Houthi attacks

Middle East region

Panama Canal

  • Atlantic oceans -> Isthmus of Panama -> Pacific oceans
  • It lies within Panama.
  • Issue: Drought

Panama Canal

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