PMF IAS Test Series for UPSC Prelims Banner Ad
PMF IAS Test Series for UPSC Prelims Banner Ad

Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) Machines

  • Context (IE): A plea has been filed in the Madras HC to count 100% of the VVPAT machine printout slips attached to the Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs).
  • INDIA alliance has demanded that “Instead of the VVPAT slip falling in the box, it should be handed over to the voter who shall then place it in a separate ballot box after verifying his or her choice”.

About VVPATs

  • VVPAT is an independent verification printer attached to EVMs.
  • The use of VVPATs falls under Rule 49A of the Conduct of Elections Rules, 1961, which states that every EVM shall have a control unit and a balloting unit.
  • When a vote is cast, a slip is printed on the VVPAT printer containing the serial number, name, and symbol of the candidate who voted.
  • This remains visible to the voter through a transparent window for seven seconds. After that, this printed slip automatically gets cut and falls into a sealed drop box.
  • According to ECI, EVMs and VVPATs are separate entities and are not connected to any network.
  • These were first used in Nagaland’s bye-election for the Noksen Assembly seat in 2013.
  • The 2019 Lok Sabha elections became the first general election to have 100% of EVMs attached to VVPATs.


Significance of VVPAT

  • It allows voters to verify that their votes have been recorded accurately.
  • If there is a need, these printouts can later be counted.
  • VVPAT machines can be accessed by polling officers only.
  • EVMs and VVPATs try to ensure the massive election process is in tune with the latest technological advancements.
  • VVPATs add another layer of transparency and reliability to convince voters about the sanctity of EVMs.
  • Its verification helps to eliminate chances of EVM manipulation.
  • Electoral fraud and rigging can be checked.
  • EVMs and VVPATs also quicken the election process as counting votes on EVMs takes much less time than counting paper ballots.


  1. Technical Malfunctions
    • There have been instances of the machines malfunctioning, resulting in inaccurate printing or no printing.
  2. Verification of Paper Trails
    • Another challenge is verifying the paper trails generated by the VVPAT machines.
  3. Voter Confidence
    • The lack of transparency and accountability on the part of the EC has led to questions about the fairness and accuracy of the elections.
    • The SC in Dr. Subramanian Swamy v ECI (2013) held that VVPAT is an “indispensable requirement of free and fair elections”.


  • EC told the SC that verification of 20,600 VVPATs (Five randomly selected polling stations per Assembly seat) had been conducted.
  • Not a single case of transfer of vote meant for candidate ‘A’ to candidate ‘B’ has been detected.
  • Differences in the count, if any, have always been traceable to human errors like non-deletion of mock poll votes from the control unit of the EVM or the VVPAT.
  • EC received 25 complaints out of the 118 crore voters who cast their votes. It said all these complaints were found to be false.
  • The EC said 100% verification was a regressive thought and tantamount to going back to the days of manual voting using ballot system”.
  • Manual counting of all VVPAT slips would take time and introduce the potential for human error.
Sharing is Caring !!

Newsletter Updates

Subscribe to our newsletter and never miss an important update!

Assured Discounts on our New Products!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


Never miss an important update!