National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)

  • The National Tiger Conservation Authority was established in December 2005 following a recommendation of the Tiger Task Force.
  • National Tiger Conservation Authority administers Project Tiger.
  • Administration of the tiger reserves will be in accordance with guidelines of NTCA.
  • Tiger reserves in India are administered by field directors as mandated by NTCA.
  • No alteration in the boundaries of a tiger reserve shall be made except on a recommendation of the NTCA and the approval of the National Board for Wild Life.
  • No State Government shall de-notify a tiger reserve, except in public interest with the approval of the NTCA and the approval of the National Board for Wild Life.
The Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2006
  • The Act provides for creating

NTCA members

  • The Wildlife Protection Amendment Act, 2006 provides for the constitution of the National Tiger Conservation Authority.
  • NTCA was set up under the Chairmanship of the Minister for Environment and Forests.
  • The Authority will have
    • eight experts having qualifications in wildlife conservation and welfare tribals,
    • 3 MPs,
    • The Inspector-General of Forests, in charge of project Tiger, will be ex-officio Member Secretary
    • Others

Functions of NTCA

  • The Authority lays down standards, guidelines for tiger conservation in the Tiger Reserves, National Parks and Sanctuaries.
  • The Tiger Conservation Authority would be required to prepare an Annual Report, which would be laid in the Parliament along with the Audit Report.
  • State-level Steering Committees will be set up in the Tiger States under the Chairmanship of respective Chief Ministers.
  • This has been done with a view for ensuring coordination, monitoring and protection of tigers in the States.
  • A provision has been made for the State Governments to prepare a Tiger Conservation Plan.
  • Provision will be made for the States to establish a Tiger Conservation Foundation, based on the good practices emanating from some tiger reserves.

Reasons for the falling number of tigers

  • Pressure on habitat, Habitat fragmentation and Habitat destruction: Caused due to large-scale development projects such as dams, industry, mines, railway lines etc.
  • Incessant poaching: Tigers are killed so their body parts can be used for Traditional Chinese Medicine.
  • Invasive species: Destroy the local producers. This has a cascading effect on the food chain. Tigers are the worst hit as they are at the end of the food chain. [Tigers represent an “Umbrella Species” that indicate the health of the ecosystem.]

Steps Taken by the Government for Tiger Conservation

  • Amendment of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to Wild Life (Protection) Act, 2006 for providing enabling provisions towards constituting the National Tiger Conservation Authority and the Tiger and Other Endangered Species Crime Control Bureau.
  • Enhancement of punishment in cases of offence relating to a tiger reserve or its core area.

Administrative Steps

  • Strengthening of ant poaching activities, including special strategy for monsoon patrolling.
  • State level Steering Committees under the Chairmanship of Chief Ministers and establishment of Tiger Conservation Foundation.
  • Creation of Special Tiger Protection Force (STPF) [Budget 2008]

Financial Steps

  • Financial and technical help is provided to the States under various Centrally Sponsored Schemes, viz. Project Tiger and Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats.

International Cooperation

  • India has a bilateral understanding with Nepal on controlling trans-boundary illegal trade in wildlife
  • India has signed a protocol on tiger conservation with China.
  • India has signed a with Bangladesh for conservation of the Royal Bengal Tiger.
  • A sub-group on tiger/leopard conservation has been constituted for cooperation with the Russian Federation.
  • A Global Tiger Forum of Tiger Range Countries has been created for addressing international issues related to tiger conservation.
  • India is a party to CITES. CITES’s landmark decision states that ‘tigers should not be bred for trade in their parts and derivatives’.
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