PMF IAS Test Series for UPSC Prelims Banner Ad
PMF IAS Test Series for UPSC Prelims Banner Ad
  • Context (TH): Indian Immunologicals (IIL) launched the country’s first indigenously developed Hepatitis A vaccine, ‘Havisure’.


  • Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver.
  • The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to chronic hepatitis, which can lead to progressive scarring of the liver (cirrhosis) or liver cancer.
  • Causes: Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis. Toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.
  • Symptoms: Acute infection may occur with limited or no symptoms or may include symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

5 Types of Hepatitis Virus

Hepatitis A Virus (HAV)

  • It is the most common type of viral hepatitis.
  • Causes: It is generally seen in the areas where sanitation and sewage disposal are poor. It is usually a short-term (acute) infection.
  • Transmission: Commonly spread through faecal-oral route (ingestion of contaminated food and water). Certain sex practices can also spread HAV.
  • Treatment: There is no specific treatment other than using medication. Vaccines are available to prevent HAV.

Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

  • Transmission
    1. Through exposure to infective blood, semen, and other body fluids.
    2. From infected mothers to infants at the time of birth
    3. Through contaminated injections during medical procedures, & through injection drug use.
  • Prevention: Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV.

Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)

  • Transmission: Through exposure to infective blood during transfusions of HCV-contaminated blood and blood products, contaminated injections during medical procedures, and through injection drug use. Sexual transmission is also possible but is much less common.
  • There is no vaccine for HCV.

Hepatitis D Virus (HDV)

  • It occurs only in those who are infected with HBV.
  • The dual infection of HDV and HBV can result in a more serious disease and worse outcome.
  • Prevention: Hepatitis B vaccines protect from HDV infection.

Hepatitis E Virus (HEV)

  • Transmission is mostly through the consumption of contaminated water or food.
  • Prevention: Safe and effective vaccines to prevent HEV infection have been developed but are not widely available.

Quick Facts

  • Hepatitis A and E are typically caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water.
  • Hepatitis B, C and D usually occur as a result of contact with infected body fluids.
  • Hepatitis B and C can cause chronic hepatitis and are responsible for 96% of overall hepatitis mortality.
  • Hepatitis A and E cause acute hepatitis.
  • Vaccines are available to prevent hepatitis A, B and E. However, no vaccine for hepatitis C.
Sharing is Caring !!

Newsletter Updates

Subscribe to our newsletter and never miss an important update!

Assured Discounts on our New Products!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *


Never miss an important update!