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Current Affairs for UPSC Civil Services Exam – July 01, 2024

{GS1 – MIH – Movements} Santhal Hul

  • Context (IE): In Jharkhand, June 30 is observed as Hul Diwas, marking the anniversary of the 1855 Santal rebellion led by Sido and Kanhu Murmu.

Santhal Hul

Causes of Uprising

  • Revenue Policies: After the Battle of Plassey (1757), the East India Company (EIC) implemented revenue policies and law-and-order rules to control India.
  • Permanent Settlement (1793): Introduced by Lord Cornwallis in Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, landlords had perpetual land rights if they paid fixed revenue to the British.
  • Impact on Santhals: Tribal lands were auctioned when peasants couldn’t pay rent, leading to a loss of control over land and traditional systems.
  • Damin-i-Koh (1832): EIC demarcated this area for Santhals, promising non-interference.
  • Rising Rent: Increased demands from the British led to exorbitant rents.
  • Economic Strain: Santhals, using the barter system, faced cash payment issues, leading to borrowing at high interest rates from moneylenders.


  • On June 30, 1855, the Santhal revolt (Hul revolt) began, led by Sidhu, Kanhu, Chand, Bhairav, and their sisters Phulo and Jhano.
  • Santhals formed troops, including farmers and women, capturing parts of Rajmahal Hills, Bhagalpur, and Birbhum. Over 10,000 Santhals militarised, destroying storehouses and disrupting communication.
  • With landlord support, the British used heavy weapons to suppress the revolt. Sidhu and Kanhu were arrested, and the rebellion ended in 1856.


  • The Santhal rebellion was brutally repressed, and the movement ended with significant loss and suppression of the Santhal people.
  • The Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act of 1876 prohibits the transfer of Adivasi lands to non-Adivasis, ensuring that land can only be inherited, thus maintaining Santhal self-governance over their land.
  • The Chhotanagpur Tenancy Act of 1908, stemming from the Birsa Movement, restricts the sale of Adivasi and Dalit lands.
    • Permits land transfers within the same caste. In certain areas with District Collector approval, allowed Adivasi land transfers within same police station & Dalit land transfers within same district.

{GS2 – Polity – Laws} Three Criminal Laws

Efforts of Government to Implement the Laws

  • Operational Training
    • Bar Council: New laws in university curricula from 2024-25.
    • Department of School Education: Special modules for Classes 6 and up.
    • LBSNAA: Five-day training for IAS/IPS/judicial officers, crime records, and forensic labs.
    • Ministries of Women and Child Development, Rural Development, Panchayati Raj: Webinars for grassroots functionaries.
  • Publicity and Awareness
    • Bureau of Police Research and Development: Coordinated publicity campaign.
    • Press Information Bureau: Workshops and Vartalaps in 20 state capitals.
  • Technology Upgradation
    • National Crime Records Bureau: 23 modifications in Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System for tech compatibility.
    • National Informatics Centre: Developed apps (eSakshya, NyayShruti, eSummon) for crime scene documentation and judicial processes.
  • Capacity Building
    • Bureau of Police Research and Development: 13 training modules for police, prisons, prosecutors, judicial officers, and forensic experts.
    • Training courses/webinars/seminars: Over 250 sessions, 40,000 personnel trained.
  • Legal Affairs
    • Conferences: Organised by the Department of Legal Affairs and involve the judiciary and police.
    • iGOT Karmayogi platform: Training courses, 2,18,000 officials enrolled.
  • Planned Events
    • Higher education institutions: Group discussions, workshops, and seminars on new criminal laws.
    • Police stations: Conducting events nationwide.

{GS3 – Envi – CC} Climate Policy of India **

SC Verdict

  • It has recognised the right to ‘be free from the adverse effects of climate change as a fundamental right derived from the Constitution’s guarantees of the right to life (Article 21) and equality (Article 14).
  • This ruling is pivotal as India navigates its climate policy landscape, presenting opportunities and challenges in governance and legislation.

Positives of India’s Climate Policy

  • Recognition of Climate Rights: The judgment elevates protection from climate change impacts to a fundamental human right, empowering citizens to demand accountability from the government.
  • Prioritizing transmission infrastructure for renewable energy development underscores India’s commitment to reducing carbon emissions and enhancing energy security.
  • Provides a framework for systematic governance around climate change, potentially leading to coherent policy frameworks.

Negatives of India’s Climate Policy

  • Critics argue that focusing on large-scale clean energy projects may overlook local adaptation measures and resilience-building efforts.
  • Patchwork Approach: Reliance on judicial decisions and litigation may result in a fragmented approach to climate protection, lacking a unified national strategy.
  • A lack of Umbrella Legislation could hinder efforts across sectors and regions, limiting effectiveness.

Way Forward

  • Enabling legislation tailored to India’s needs, balancing mitigation with adaptation strategies across diverse sectors like urban development, agriculture, and water management.
    • Example: Introduction of a Climate Change Adaptation and Resilience Act mandates states to develop local climate action plans, integrating urban planning, agriculture, and water management.
  • Inclusive Governance: Incorporate mechanisms for public participation, expert consultation, and transparency in setting climate targets and reporting progress.
  • Federalism Integration: Ensure climate laws accommodate India’s federal structure, empowering states and local governments with resources and autonomy to implement climate actions effectively.
  • Learning from International Models: Draw insights from global climate legislation examples, adapting best practices to suit India’s developmental context and vulnerabilities.
  • Germany emphasises renewable energy deployment and efficiency, supported by policies like the Energiewende (Energy Transition).
  • Holistic Approach: Prioritize laws stimulating low-carbon growth while enhancing climate resilience in infrastructure, agriculture, and natural resource management.
    • Example: Green Building Codes mandating energy-efficient designs and materials and incentivising developers to incorporate renewable energy and rainwater harvesting.

To know about India’s Climate Policy, refer > Overview of India’s Climate Policy

{GS3 – S&T – Tech} Eco-friendly Supercapacitors *

  • Context (TH): Researchers have developed environmentally friendly supercapacitors.

Credit: ACS Publications

  • Coconut husk-derived activated carbon offers promising, eco-friendly solutions for high-performance supercapacitors due to its availability, low cost, and sustainability.


  • A supercapacitor, also known as an ultracapacitor, is an advanced energy storage device.
  • Its benefits include high power density, durability, and fast charging compared to traditional capacitors and Lithium-Ion batteries (LIB).
  • Its key components are electrodes, electrolytes, separators, and current collectors.
  • To reduce manufacturing costs, efforts must focus on minimising the expenses of electrodes and electrolytes, significantly contributing to overall production costs.
  • Electrodes conduct electricity through non-metallic mediums, while electrolytes produce conductive solutions when dissolved in polar solvents like water.

Capacitor vs Supercapacitor

  • A capacitor is a passive electronic component that stores electrical energy in electrostatic charge, typically constructed with two conducting plates separated by a dielectric material such as ceramic.
  • A supercapacitor is a type of capacitor with significantly higher capacitance and lower voltage ratings.
  • A Supercapacitor uses activated carbon-coated electrodes separated by an electrolytic solution as a separator instead of a dielectric.
  • Unlike traditional capacitors that store energy electrostatically, supercapacitors can store energy electrostatically, electrochemically, or in a hybrid manner.
  • Supercapacitors offer a higher energy density (1-5 Wh/kg) compared to capacitors (0.01-0.05 Wh/kg) and have faster charging and discharging times (milliseconds to seconds).
  • Supercapacitors operate in a wider temperature range (-40 °C to +85 °C) and find applications in UPS systems, RAM modules, CMOS circuits, and portable electronics where quick power stabilisation is crucial.

{Prelims – In News} Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)

  • Context (TH): Call to make bone marrow transplant procedure available in Madurai Govt. Rajaji Hospital.

Bone marrow transplant (BMT)

Credit: Care Hospitals

  • BMT involves replacing diseased blood-forming cells with healthy ones.
  • Blood-forming cells, also known as blood stem cells, are immature cells located in the bone marrow, where they develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  • Once mature, these cells exit the bone marrow and circulate in the bloodstream.

Types of BMT

  • Autologous transplant:
    • In this method, blood-forming cells are harvested, preserved by freezing, and stored.
    • Subsequently, they are returned to your body following chemotherapy (chemo) and sometimes radiation therapy.
  • Allogeneic transplant:
    • In this method, healthy blood-forming cells are donated by someone else.
    • The donor can be a family member or someone unrelated to you.
  • Haploidentical transplant:
    • A haploidentical transplant is a form of allogeneic transplant where healthy blood-forming cells from a half-matched donor, usually a family member, are used to replace unhealthy cells.

Stem Cells

  • Stem cells are unique human cells with the ability to transform into various types of cells within the body, ranging from muscle cells to brain cells.
  • Stem cell banking plays a crucial role in stem cell therapy.

Types of stem cell

  • Embryonic stem cells:
    • These stem cells are present exclusively in the earliest stages of development.
  • Adult stem cells
    • These are cells that proliferate to repair adult organs and tissues when needed.
    • They are found in nearly all human body organs and are multipotent, capable of generating a limited range of mature cell types specific to their residing tissues.
    • An example is hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow, which produce various blood cells.
    • Certain tissue-specific stem cells, known as unipotent or bipotent, generate one or two types of mature cells; for instance, skin stem cells regenerate skin cells as unipotent cells.
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs:
    • These cells are artificially created in laboratories using cells from the body.
    • iPSC cells exhibit characteristics akin to embryonic stem cells and were first successfully generated in humans in 2007.

To learn more about CART–T cells, refer > CAR-T Cell Therapy

{Prelims – In News} Araku Valley Coffee

  • Context (TH): Araku Valley Coffee was recently discussed in the Mann Ki Baat program.

Araku Valley Coffee

  • It is grown in the hilly tracts of Visakhapatnam district, Andhra Pradesh, and the Odisha region.
  • They are cultivated at an elevation of 900m-1100m Mean Sea Level.
  • It is produced by tribals who follow organic farming, emphasising organic manures, green manuring, and organic pest management practices.
  • Araku Valley Coffee was awarded the Geographical Indication tag in 2019.


  • In India, the major coffee-producing states are Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Odisha. Karnataka leads in production, accounting for over 70% of the total output.
  • Predominnty two species of coffee: Coffea Arabica (Arabica) and Coffea Canephora (Robusta).
  • Arabica is particularly sensitive to climate variations.

Ideal climatic conditions for coffee growth

  • It requires hot and humid weather. Dry weather during berry ripening is crucial.
  • Temperature range: 15°C to 28°C, Annual Rainfall: 150 to 250 cm, Elevation: 600 to 1600 meters above sea level. It is typically grown under shade trees.
  • Soil: Well-drained, loamy soil rich in humus, iron, and calcium is ideal.

{Prelims – In News} Space MAITRI

  • Context (TH): ISRO’s NSIL announced SSLV’s first dedicated commercial launch, deploying the Optimus satellite by Australia’s Space Machines Company.

Space MAITRI (Mission for Australia-India’s Technology, Research and Innovation)

  • The Optimus satellite, weighing 450 kg, is Australia’s largest domestically designed and built spacecraft.
  • Scheduled for 2026, the mission emphasises Australia-India collaboration in technology and R&D.
  • The mission aims to enhance space debris management and promote sustainable space operations.

{Prelims – Sci – Physics} Perovskite Quantum Dots (PQDs)

  • Context (TH): Scientists from the Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, Bengaluru, have developed a better way to produce light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
  • PQDs are a novel class of materials with unique properties suitable for creating vibrant LED displays.
  • By precisely controlling the size and composition of perovskite quantum dots during synthesis, scientists can adjust their emission to produce the desired colours for full-colour displays.

Perovskite Quantum Dots (PQDs)

  • Perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) are a class of quantum dots based on perovskite materials.
  • Perovskites share a crystal structure similar to the perovskite mineral, which consists of calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3).
  • While these are relatively new, they have already been shown to have properties matching or surpassing those of the metal chalcogenide QDs.
  • PQDs are more defect tolerant with better photoluminescence quantum yields & high colour purity.
  • Such attractive properties are highly suited for electronic and optoelectronic applications.
  • Real-world applications include LED displays and quantum dot solar cells

Challenges in Perovskite Quantum Dot Research

  • Their susceptibility to moisture and heat can compromise performance and lifespan within LEDs.
  • When different-coloured perovskite quantum dots are layered to produce white light, anion migration, a reaction occurs, causing them to lose their individual colours.


  • Scientists have found a way to mitigate anion migration between distinct perovskite quantum dot films.
  • They achieved this by embedding an ultrathin alumina layer, grown via atomic layer deposition (ALD), within the perovskite quantum dot layers.

Also refer > Comparison: LEDs – Incandescent Light Bulbs – Compact Fluorescents (CFLs)

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