Nuclear Magnetic Resonance & Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)

  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance is an analytical chemistry technique used in quality control & research.
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) can determine the content at the molecular level.
  • NMR spectroscopy is the study of molecules
    • by recording the interaction of radiofrequency (Rf) electromagnetic radiations
    • with the nuclei of molecules
    • placed in a strong magnetic field.
  • Hence NMR can be used to determine the purity of a sample as well as its molecular structure.
  • The NMR test is not required for honey that is being marketed locally but is needed for export.

Electromagnetic Spectrum – Wikipedia

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

  • MRI is a medical imaging application of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
  • MRI is used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body.
  • MRI scanners use strong magnetic fields and radio waves to generate images of the organs in the body.
  • MRI does not involve X-rays or the use of ionizing radiation, which distinguishes it from CT.
  • Hence MRI is seen as a better choice than a CT scan.
  • Compared with CT scans, MRI scans typically take longer and are louder.
  • In addition, people with metal medical implants may be unable to undergo an MRI examination safely.
  • This is because of the strong magnetic fields employed by the MRI Scanner.

Magnetic Field in an MRI Scanner

  • MRI scanners have giant electromagnets with field strengths of between 0.5 tesla and 1.5 tesla (1,500 times more powerful than a fridge magnet and 30,000X the geomagnetic field).
  • For reference, a fridge magnet is about 0.001 tesla, and the Earth’s magnetic field is 0.00005 tesla.

Working of an MRI Scanner

  • The human body is mostly water (hydrogen and oxygen), and when in the massive, stable magnetic field of the scanner, the hydrogen protons get aligned in the same direction.
  • A radiofrequency source is then switched on and off, repeatedly knocking the protons out of line and back into alignment.
  • Receivers pick up radio signals that the protons send out, and by combining these signals, the machine creates a detailed image of the body’s inside.
  • Because of the machine’s giant magnetic field, hospitals and diagnostic centers issue detailed guidelines to ensure no metal objects are brought close.

Accidents while scanning

Adulteration of Honey & Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

  • According to researchers from the Centre for Science & Environment (CSE), major Indian brands are selling honey adulterated with a modified sugar from China.
  • Initially, sugars from corn, sugarcane, rice, & beetroot used to be added to honey to increase sweetness.
  • Such adulteration is detected by basic tests.
  • The modified ‘Chinese sugar’, however, can only be detected by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR).
  • NMR tests have very recently been made mandatory in India for honey that is meant for export.

Impact of honey adulterated with Sugar Syrup

Economic Impact

  • Sugar-syrup honey was often available at half the price.
  • This is a big blow to beekeepers (the majority of them are in the North-East).

Health impact

  • Pure honey has antimicrobial & anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Consuming adulterated honey leads to unintended sugar ingestion which leads to obesity.

Measures required to prevent honey adulteration

  • A mechanism for traceability of the source of honey (blockchain technology can be used in this).
  • Develop advanced Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) testing facilitates in India (the existing facilities are not sophisticated enough & can be tricked easily) & make NMR tests mandatory for the domestic market.
  • Stringent enforcement of quality standards & hefty penalties for violations.

India’s first honey testing lab

  • India’s first honey testing lab was set up by National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) at Anand (known as Milk Capital of India; Amul dairy is here), Gujarat.
  • The testing lab will unlock potential for apiarists to take advantage of exports to the US and Europe.
  • Till recently, the exporters were required to ship their samples to Germany for testing.
  • The development comes after National Bee Board’s decade-long wait for a government testing facility.
  • The new lab is the only accredited laboratory that can test honey samples as per FSSAI’s regulations.

Paid users of Science & Technology Notes can download the above content from Sci & Tech April 2021 Current Affairs

Sharing is Caring !!

Newsletter Updates

Subscribe to our newsletter and never miss an important update !!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Year(s) = Validity of the Downloads

1 Year Validity == Validity of the Download links (both Static & Current Affairs) is 1 Year from the date of purchase.

2 Years Validity == Validity of the Download links (both Static & Current Affairs) is 2 Years from the date of purchase.

We strongly recommend a 2 Year Plan as the UPSC Cycle lasts for close to 2 Years.

For example,

If you purchase the notes with “Download Validity == 1 Year,” on 27/03/2023, then you will be able to download the Static Files + Current Affairs files till 27/03/2024.

If you purchase the notes with “Download Validity == 2 Years,” on 27/03/2023, then you will be able to download the Static Files + Current Affairs files till 28/03/2025.

If we bring out the Updated (New) Editions of the Static Files within your membership period, you will be able to download them without paying anything extra.

Irrespective of the package you choose, Current Affairs of Geography, Environment, Sci & Tech and Indian Agriculture are available from Jan 2022.

Current Affairs of 2021 & earlier are available for free on PMF IAS Google Drive Folder.

Once the payment is made, you need to log in to the Downloads Page to download the files (check your email for the login details).


Subscribe to our newsletter and never miss an important update!