Table of Contents
- 1 Newer Agricultural Practices
- 2 Crop Classifications
- 2.0.1 Classification based on climate
- 2.0.2 Classification Based on growing season
- 2.0.3 Agronomic Classification of Crops
- 2.0.4 Classification based on cultural method/water
- 2.0.5 Classification based on root system
- 2.0.6 Classification based on economic importance
- 2.0.7 Classification based on No. of cotyledons
- 2.0.8 Classification based on length of photoperiod required for floral initiation
- 2.0.9 Cropping pattern
- 2.0.10 Cropping system
- 2.0.11 Intercropping
- 2.0.12 Permaculture
- 2.0.13 Micro Irrigation
- 2.0.14 Sprinkler Irrigation
- 2.0.15 Drip irrigation
- 2.0.16 Terracing
- 2.0.17 System of Rice Intensification (SRI)
- 2.0.18 Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI)
- 2.0.19 Tillage – Advantages
- Modern agriculture includes animal husbandry, poultry farming, apiculture, fisheries and mushroom culture etc. to provide additional food supplements like milk, meat, fish, egg, mushroom etc.
- In addition to provide nutritional food for the masses, they also reduce load on the consumption of cereals and pulses.
|Green||Food grain Production|
|Yellow||Oil seeds Production|
|SilviCulture||art of cultivating forest trees|
|Sericulture||rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk|
|Apiculture||maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans|
|Olericulture||science of vegetable growing, dealing with the culture of non-woody (herbaceous) plants for food|
|Viticulture||science, production and study of grapes|
|Floriculture||discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens|
|Arboriculture||cultivation, management, and study of individual trees, shrubs, vines, and other perennial woody plants|
|Pomology||branch of horticulture which focuses on the cultivation, production, harvest, and storage of fruit, etc.|
|Aeroponics||process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of soil or an aggregate medium|
|Hydroponics||method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions, in water, without soil.|
|Geoponic||farming practice, refers to growing plants in normal soil|
|System that combines conventional aquaculture (raising aquatic animals such as snails, fish, crayfish or prawns in tanks) with hydroponics (cultivating plants in water) in a symbiotic environment.|
- Poultry farming is a term used for rearing and keeping of birds such as fowl, duck and hen for egg and meat.
- Poultry farming has become popular because this is comparatively easy to start and maintain.
- It gives quick return within one to six month of investments, is easily manageable and required less space and labour. Poultry birds and their eggs are rich source of nutrients.
- Indian poultry birds provide good quality meat but produces small sized eggs. They have natural immunity against common diseases as compared to exotic varieties bred abroad.
- Mushrooms are kind of fungus which appear as white tiny balls consisting of a short stem and a cap which opens like an umbrella later.
- They lack chlorophyll and grow on organic matter or waste materials from farms or factories, useless by-products can be recycled as medium to grow mushrooms for human consumption.
- Out of the large number of mushroom species only some are edible.
- Mushrooms are good source of high quality proteins and are rich in vitamins and minerals.
- Like fruits and vegetables mushrooms are perishables and require a great deal of attention during storage, marketing and processing.
- Apiculture is also known as bee-keeping.
- Apiculture or bee-keeping is the art of controlling colonies of honey bee in large quantity for commercial production of honey.
- There are three major advantages of bee-keeping: (i) provides honey- a valuable food (ii) provides bee wax- which has many uses in industry (iii) honey bees are excellent pollinating agents which increase agricultural yields.
Consequences Of Over fishing in seas
- Over fishing take place to such an extent that very little breeding stock (fish population) is left to maintain the special number.
- Prolonged over fishing leads to commercial extinction when the population of the species becomes so low that it is no longer profitable to hunt them.
- Fishing methods such as trawling and drift nets capture everything in their way indiscriminately. Sometimes 70% of the catch is thrown away.
- Commercial fish catching disturbs non-target marine animals. Dredges and trawls also adversely affect the marine habitats.
Aquaculture offers a potential solution
- Aquaculture offers a potential solution to the depleted ocean fisheries as well as meeting the demand for sea food.
- The current “blue revolution” of aquaculture has taken up the shape of an industry with intensive use of resources and has adverse environmental impacts.
- Ecological aquaculture (Eco-aquaculture) need to be promoted with a focus on developing aquatic farming system that preserve the.
- Areas where fish are reared commercially are known as artificial fisheries. The fishes are bred, reared and later harvested.
- Depending on the nature of water in which fish is reared fisheries can be:
- Marine fisheries: fishing operations along the coastline, e.g. Mackerels, Sardines, Catfish.
- Fresh water or inland fisheries: fish found in rivers, irrigation canals, reservoirs, lakes, tanks, ponds etc. e.g. Rohu, Catla, Mystus.
- Estuarine or brackish water fisheries: estuaries are where river water and sea water get mixed like backwaters, lagoons, coastal lakes, delta channels. They are more common in Bengal and Kerala. E.g. Mullet, Milkfish, Pearlspot.
- There are several other aquatic resources such as molluscs (oyster, mussels, squids, octopus, cuttlefish etc.) and seaweeds which have been exploited for aquaculture.
- Sea weeds are used for human consumption, as cattle and poultry feed, as manure and for industrial purpose as a source of agar-agar and algin.
- The branch of agriculture that deals with breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals is called animal husbandry.
- Animal husbandry is an integral part of modern agriculture as animal sources provide us important food materials like milk, egg, meat etc.
- Cows and buffaloes are our chief sources of milk. Milk producing animals are called milch animals.
- Hens are egg laying animals. Fishes, pigs, hens and goats are our major sources of meat.
- Animal husbandry plays a prominent role in the rural economy in supplementing the income of rural households.
|Foot and mouth disease||Virus||Cattle||Blisters on the mouth and foot, excessive production of saliva, loss of appetite, high body temperature, shivering.|
|Pox||Cow, buffalo, sheep, goat||Appearance of small nodules and fever.|
|Dermatitis||Goat and sheep||Irritation, blisters and eruptions on the skin.|
|Tuberculosis||Bacteria||Cattle||Infection of udders, lungs, intestine and other parts, swelling of lungs and fever.|
|Rinderpest||Cattle||Discharge from eyes, nostrils, loss of appetite, constipation followed by severe diarrhoea.|
|Anthrax||Cattle, sheep, goat, pigs||Swelling of body, fever, reduction in milk secretion.|
|Salmonellosis||Cattle||Diarrhoea with blood clots and fever|
|Mastitis||Cattle||Swallow udders, fever, milk becomes watery .|
- The foot and mouth disease of cattle is very common, dangerous and contagious disease. The affected animals are slaughtered and the dead ones are buried deep or burned so as to stop the disease from spreading.
- Another dreaded disease is anthrax which spreads easily. Such animals after death must be burnt and disposed of completely.
- Fragmentation of land holding.
- Existence of small and marginal farmers.
- Regional variation.
- Dependence of seasonal rainfall.
- Low productivity of land.
- Increasing of disguised unemployment.
- Disorder in marketing of Agricultural products.
- Weak land reformation.
- Environmental concerns due to green revolution.
- Tropical: Crops grow well in warm & hot climate. E.g. Rice, sugarcane, Jowar etc
- Temperate: Crops grow well in cool climate. E.g. Wheat, Oats, Gram, Potato etc.
- Kharif/Rainy/Monsoon crops: The crops grown in monsoon months from June to Oct-Nov, require warm, wet weather at major period of crop growth, also required short day length for flowering. E.g. Cotton, Rice, Jowar, bajara.
- Rabi/winter/cold seasons crops: The crops grown in winter season from Oct to March month. Crops grow well in cold and dry weather. Require longer day length for flowering. E.g. Wheat, gram, sunflower
- Summer/Zaid crops: crops grown in summer month from March to June. Require warm dry weather for major growth period and longer day length for flowering. E.g. Groundnuts, Watermelon, Pumpkins, Gourds.
- Cereals are cultivated grasses grown for their edible starchy grains. Larger grains used as staple food are cereals. Rice, wheat, maize, barley, rye and oats.
- These are staple food of poor people.
- Sorghum or Jowar, Pearl Millet or Bajra and Finger millet or ragi
- Fox tail millet, Little millet, Common millet, Barnyard millet and Kodomillet.
Pulses or Grain Legumes
- Pulses are major source of protein in Indian vegetarian diet.
- Red gram, Black gram, Green gram, Cowpea, Bengalgram, Horsegram, Dewgram, Soyabean, Peas or gardenpea, Garden bean etc.
Oil Seed Crops
Groundnut or peanut, sesamum, sunflower, castor, linseed or flax, rapeseed & mustard.
- Sugarcane and sugar beet.
Byproducts of Sugar Industry
- Molasses, bagasse, pressmud
- Molasses used for alcohol and yeast formation.
- Bagasse for paper making and fuel.
- Pressmud used for soil amendment
- Trash (green leaf + dry foliage) — the waste is used for cattle feed
- Sugar beet — Tuber for extraction of sugar
- Tubers and tops are used as a fodder for cattle feed
With reference to the usefulness of the by-products of sugar industry, which of the following statements is/are correct?
- Bagasse can be used as biomass fuel for the generation of energy.
- Molasses can be used as one of the feedstocks for the production of synthetic chemical fertilizers.
- Molasses can be used for the production of ethanol.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below.
- 1 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
Ethanol is alcohol.
Answer: c) 1 and 3 only
Starch Crops or Tuber Crops
- Potato, cassava, sweet potato etc.
- Jute, mesta (pulicha keerai), sun hemp, sisal hemp
Narcotics – Stimulates Nervous System
- Tobacco, betelvine and arecanut.
- Tea – leaf, Coffee – seed, rubber, cocoa – seed, palm – oil, sugarcane – sugar etc.
Spices and Condiments
- Products of crop plants are used to flavor taste and sometime color the fresh preserved food. E.g. ginger, garlic, chili, cumin onion, coriander, cardamom, pepper, turmeric etc.
Medicinal & aromatic crops
- Medicinal plants includes cinchona, isabgoli, opium poppy, senna, belladonna, rauwolfra, iycorice and aromatic plants such as lemon grass, citronella grass, palmorsa, Japanese mint, peppermint, rose, jasmine, henna etc.
Classification based on life of crops/duration of crops
- Seasonal crops: A crop completes its life cycle in one season. E.g. rice, Jowar, wheat etc.
- Two seasonal crops: crops complete its life cycle in two seasons. E.g. Cotton, turmeric, ginger.
- Annual crops: Crops require one full year to complete its life cycle. E.g. sugarcane.
- Biennial crops: Crops requires two year to complete its life cycle E.g. Banana, Papaya.
- Perennial crops: crops live for several years. E.g. Fruit crops, mango, guava etc.
- Rain fed: Cultivation of crop mainly based on the availability of rain water. E.g. Jowar, Bajara, Mung etc.
- Irrigated crops: Crops cultivated with the help of irrigation water. E.g. Chili, sugarcane, Banana, papaya etc.
- Tap root system: The main root goes deep into the soil. E.g. Tur, Grape, Cotton etc.
- Fiber rooted: The crops whose roots are fibrous shallow & spreading into the soil. E.g. Cereal crops, wheat, rice etc.
- Cash crop: Grown for earning money. E.g. Sugarcane, cotton.
- Food crops: Grown for raising food grain for the population and & fodder for cattle. E.g. Jowar, wheat, rice etc.
- Monocots or monocotyledons: Having one cotyledon in the seed. E.g. all cereals & Millets.
- Dicots or dicotyledonous: Crops having two cotyledons in the seed. E.g. all legumes & pulses and almost all the trees.
- Most plants are influenced by relative length of the day & night, especially for floral initiation, the effect on plant is known as photoperiodism.
- Short-day plants: Flower initiation takes place when days are short less then ten hours. E.g. rice, Jowar, green gram, black gram etc.
- Long day’s plants: require long days are more than ten hours for floral initiation. E.g. Wheat, Barley, etc.
- Day neutral plants: Photoperiod does not have much influence for phase change for these plants. E.g. Cotton, sunflower, etc.
- The yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops and fallow on a given area is called cropping pattern
- Multiple cropping: Growing more than two crops in a piece of land in a year in orderly succession. It is also called as intensive cropping. It is used to intensify the production. It is possible only when assured resources are available (land, labour, capital and water)
- Double cropping: Growing two crops a year in sequence. Example: Rice – Pulse
- Triple cropping: Growing three crops a year in sequence. Example: Rice – Rice – Pulse
- Monoculture: Repetitive growing of the same sole crop in the same land.
- Mono cropping: Continuous production of one and the same crop year after year or season after season is called mono cropping.
- Sole cropping: One crop variety grown alone in a pure stand at normal density.
- Growing two or more crops simultaneously with distinct row arrangement on the same field at the same time.
- Base crop: primary crop which is planted/ sown at its optimum sole crop population in an intercropping situation.
- Intercrop : This is a second crop planted in between rows of base crop with a view to obtain extra yields with intercrop without compromise in the main crop yields
- Higher amount of nitrogen has to be applied for mineralization of organic matter in zero tillage
- Perennial weeds may be a problem
- High number of volunteer plants and buildup of pests
- Better use of growth resources including light, nutrients and water
- Suppression of weeds
- Yield & stability – even if one crop fails due to unforeseen situations, another crop will yield and provides some secured income
- Successful intercropping gives higher equivalent yields (yield of base crop + yield of intercrop), higher cropping intensity
- Reduced pest and disease incidences
- Improvement of soil health and agro-eco system Examples of Inter cropping
- Maize + Cowpea
- Sorghum + Redgram
- Groundnut + Redgram
- Potato + Mustard
- Wheat + Mustard
|The main objective of inter cropping is to utilise the space between rows of main crop and to produce more grain per unit area||The main objective of mixed cropping is insurance against crop failure.|
|There is no competition between main and inter crop (subsidiary crop)||There is competition between component crops. Here all crops are given equal importance and care. Hence, there is no difference between component crops|
|In inter cropping, the main crop may be a long duration one and the inter crop may be a short duration/early maturing one||Crops may or may not be of same duration|
|Main and inter crops are sown in definite row arrangement||There is no specific row arrangement. Generally crop seeds are mixed and broadcasted|
|The sowing time of both the crops may or may not be the same. Sometimes the main crops is sown earlier than the inter crop||The sowing time of component crops is same.|
- It is a contraction of “permanent agriculture” or “permanent culture.”
- It is defined as a design system for creating sustainable human environments.
- It uses ecology as the basis for designing integrated systems of food production, housing, appropriate technology, and community development.
- Permaculture is built upon an ethic of caring for the earth and interacting with the environment in mutually beneficial ways.
- A central theme in Permaculture is the design of ecological landscapes that produce food.
- Emphasis is placed on multi-use plants, cultural practices such as sheet mulching and trellising, and the integration of animals to recycle nutrients and graze weeds.
- Micro irrigation is defined as the methods in which low volume of water is applied at low pressure & high frequency. The system has extensive network of pipes at operated at low pressure. At pre-determined spacing outlets are provided for emission water generally known as
- In the sprinkler method of irrigation, water is sprayed into the air and allowed to fall on the ground surface somewhat resembling rainfall. The spray is developed by the flow of water under pressure through small orifices or nozzles.
- Drip irrigation is also called trickle irrigation and involves dripping water onto the soil at very low rates from a system of small diameter plastic pipes fitted with outlets called emitters.
- Water is applied close to plants so that only part of the soil in which the roots grow is wetted, unlike surface and sprinkler irrigation, which involves wetting the whole soil profile.
- “A terrace is an embankment or ridge of earth constructed across a slope to control runoff and minimize soil erosion”.
- It reduces the length of the hill side slope, thereby reducing sheet and rill erosion and prevents formation of gullies.
- SRI is a combination of several practices those include changes in nursery management, time of transplanting, water and weed management.
- It emphasizes altering of certain agronomic practices of the conventional way of rice cultivation.
- All these new practices are together known as System of Rice Intensification (SRI).
Principle – ‘More with Less’
- SRI is not a fixed package of technical specifications, but a system of production with four main components, viz., soil fertility management, planting method, weed control and water (irrigation) management.
- Rice yield increased with less water and with reduction in chemical inputs.
- Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) is an innovative set of agronomic practices that involves using less seeds, raising seeds in a nursery, and following new planting methods, with wiser seed spacing, and better water and nutrient management to increase the cane yield significantly.
- SSI methods can increase sugarcane yields b at least 20% with 30% less water and a 25% reduction in chemical inputs.
- The SSI method of sugarcane cultivation was evolved from the principles of ‘More with Less followed in SRI (System of Rice Intensification) and introduced in India in 2009.
- greater volume of soil may be obtained for cultivation of crops,
- excess water may percolate downward to recharge the permanent water table,
- reduce runoff and soil erosion,
- roots of crop plants can penetrate deeper to extract moisture from the water table.
- Clean tillage: It refers to working of the soil of the entire field in such a way no living plant is left undisturbed. It is practiced to control weeds, soil borne pathogen and pests.
- Blind tillage: It refers to tillage done after seeding or planting the crop (in a sterile soil) either at the pre – emergence stage of the crop plants or while they are in the early stages of growth so that crop plants (cereals, tuber crops etc.) do not get damaged, but extra plants and broad leaved weeds are uprooted.
- Zero tillage (No tillage): In this, new crop is planted in the residues of the previous crop without any prior soil tillage or seed bed preparation and it is possible when all the weeds are controlled by the use of herbicides.
Advantages of Zero tillage
- Zero tilled soils are homogenous in structure with more number of earthworms.
- Organic matter content increases due to less mineralization.
- Surface runoff is reduced due to presence of mulch.
Disadvantages of Zero tillage
- Higher amount of nitrogen has to be applied for mineralization of organic matter in zero tillage.
- Perennial weeds may be a problem.
- High number of volunteer plants and buildup of pests.