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[CA 20-08-2016] Siang River | Virtual reality – Merged Reality

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Siang River

  • Yarlung Tsangpo River (Brahmaputra) breaks through the Himalayas in great gorges (including the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon) and enters into Arunachal Pradesh (India), where it is known as Dihang or Siang.

ganga and brahmaputra river system

Virtual reality

The term ‘Virtual reality’ appears in news very often and hence it becomes an important topic under GS3 – Science and Technology, developments and applications.

  • Virtual reality is the next big thing in the gaming and entertainment industry.
  • It is more advanced than 3D film technology.

3D film technology

2D vs. 3D
  • What you see on your laptop or mobile screen is a 2D image.
  • What your eye sees in your room is a 3D image.
3D photography or stereoscopic photography

2d vs. 3d video

  • It is the art of capturing and displaying two slightly offset photographs to create three dimensional images.
  • Most stereoscopic methods present two offset images separately to the left and right eye of the viewer.
  • These two-dimensional images are then combined in the brain to give the perception of 3D depth.  [View this gif:]
  • 3D film technology relies on such stereoscopic photography to give a 3D feel.

Virtual reality

Virtual reality

  • Virtual reality (or VR) is a computer technology that uses software-generated images, sounds and other sensations to replicate a real environment.
  • A person using virtual reality equipment is typically able to look around the artificial world, move about in it and interact with features or items that are depicted.
  • Virtual realities artificially create sensory experiences, which can include sight, touch, hearing, and, less commonly, smell.

Merged reality or Augmented Reality

Watch this gif:

  • Mixed reality (MR) is the merging of real and virtual worlds where physical and digital objects co-exist and interact in real time.

3D == You can only see a 3D world = Sharukh Khan appears as if he is standing in front of you.

Virtual Reality == You can feel a 3D world = You can talk and dance with Sharuk Khan.

Merged Reality == You can combine real and fake 3D worlds = You can bring Sharukh Khan (virtual) to your room (real).

Videos on Virtual reality and Merged reality:

The Hindu

Inflation Trend

consumer price index india 2016 wholesale price index india 2016


  • The annual gain in wholesale prices hit a 23-month high of 3.55 per cent in July.
  • Retail inflation went past the Centre’s new Monetary Policy Framework’s upper limit for tolerance to 6.07 per cent.
  • Food costs — a key component in both indices — were the main culprit.
  • Inflation in the food category of the CPI accelerated to 8 per cent, and in the case of the WPI surged to a 31-month high of 11.8 per cent.

Factors that are expected to affect Inflation in near future

  • Forecast of normal rainfall, and the improvement in sowing are expected to reduce supply side stress. [Inflation could fall]
  • But beneficial monsoons on the other hand can result in an uptick in rural wages, and by extension demand-side consumption pressures. [Inflation could rise]
  • According IMF working paper, rising real rural incomes have had the largest impact on food inflation. [Prelims point]
  • Robust real income growth has tended to translate into substantial demand-side pressures that far outpace the supply-side gains.
  • Domestic consumption continues to be a key engine of economic momentum.
  • Implementation of the Seventh Pay Commission’s recommendations and the One Rank One Pension plan will increase demand-side pressures. [Inflation could rise]
  • The Centre will have its task cut out in maintaining fiscal discipline if it is to ensure that increased expenditure from its side doesn’t end up fanning inflation.


Kharif Crops

GS3 – Major Crops

Crop Area sown in 2016-17 Area sown in 2015-16
Rice 346.38 334.26
Pulses 136.04 100.57
Coarse Cereals 180.20 167.69
Oilseeds 175.49 168.49
Sugarcane 45.55 49.60
Jute & Mesta 7.56 7.73
Cotton 101.54 110.23
Total 992.76 938.57
  • Numbers not important. Just remember the list of Kharif Crops.

Pasighat Advanced Landing Ground gets Operational

Prelims – Location Based Questions

  • Pasighat is in Arunachal Pradesh on the banks of river Siang.
  • The ALG at Pasighat will facilitate air connectivity (both civilian and strategic purposes) with rest of the country and give a huge fillip to tourism locally.

Facilities extended to persons residing in India on Long-Term Visa (LTV)

GS 2 – Government Policies

  • Facilities to Minority community of Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, namely Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians staying on LTV in India.

Facilities Include

  • Affidavit in place of renunciation certificate,
  • LTV for five years instead of two years,
  • Facilities for education and employment, etc.
  • Permission to open bank account,
  • Permission for purchase of property for self-occupation and self–employment,
  • Permission to take self-employment,
  • Issuance of driving license, PAN card and Aadhar number,
  • Allowing free movement within the State /UT where they are staying,
  • Transfer of LTV papers from one State to other,
  • Reduction of penalty amount on non–extension of short term Visa /LTV.
  • Permission to apply for LTV from the place of present residence.
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