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Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT)

  • Context (TH): Call to make bone marrow transplant procedure available in Madurai Govt. Rajaji Hospital.

Bone marrow transplant (BMT)

Credit: Care Hospitals

  • BMT involves replacing diseased blood-forming cells with healthy ones.
  • Blood-forming cells, also known as blood stem cells, are immature cells located in the bone marrow, where they develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
  • Once mature, these cells exit the bone marrow and circulate in the bloodstream.

Types of BMT

  • Autologous transplant:
    • In this method, blood-forming cells are harvested, preserved by freezing, and stored.
    • Subsequently, they are returned to your body following chemotherapy (chemo) and sometimes radiation therapy.
  • Allogeneic transplant:
    • In this method, healthy blood-forming cells are donated by someone else.
    • The donor can be a family member or someone unrelated to you.
  • Haploidentical transplant:
    • A haploidentical transplant is a form of allogeneic transplant where healthy blood-forming cells from a half-matched donor, usually a family member, are used to replace unhealthy cells.

Stem Cells

  • Stem cells are unique human cells with the ability to transform into various types of cells within the body, ranging from muscle cells to brain cells.
  • Stem cell banking plays a crucial role in stem cell therapy.

Types of stem cell

  • Embryonic stem cells:
    • These stem cells are present exclusively in the earliest stages of development.
  • Adult stem cells
    • These are cells that proliferate to repair adult organs and tissues when needed.
    • They are found in nearly all human body organs and are multipotent, capable of generating a limited range of mature cell types specific to their residing tissues.
    • An example is hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow, which produce various blood cells.
    • Certain tissue-specific stem cells, known as unipotent or bipotent, generate one or two types of mature cells; for instance, skin stem cells regenerate skin cells as unipotent cells.
  • Induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs:
    • These cells are artificially created in laboratories using cells from the body.
    • iPSC cells exhibit characteristics akin to embryonic stem cells and were first successfully generated in humans in 2007.

To learn more about CART–T cells, refer > CAR-T Cell Therapy

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